CHAPTER I

POST LITERACY PROGRAMMES
[Concept and Content]


Literacy levels acquired by neo-literates during the short span of a literacy campaign are at best fragile. There is a genuine danger that neo-literates may regress into partial or total illiteracy unless timely action is undertaken to consolidate their learning skills and make them permanent. This is the rationale for post literacy.

The National Literacy Mission has visualized the post literacy programme as an extension of the Total Literacy Campaigns in the continuum of life-long education. Each Total Literacy Campaign is followed by the Post-literacy phase of one-year duration, to be implemented in a mission mode.

A post literacy programme envisages 40 hours of guided learning in contrast to 200 hours of teaching-learning during the Total literacy phase. This is because post literacy is focused not merely on enhancing the learning skills of the neo-literates; its aims are broader. Post literacy seeks to ingrain the reading habit in the neo-literate and to make him use his literacy skills in his day-to-day existence. It also serves as an umbrella under which a host of developmental activities are undertaken. Skill development forms a major component of post literacy and enterprising district collectors have been able to dovetail skill development with the on-going development schemes in the district very innovatively.

Post literacy phase is also the time when linkages with other development departments and schemes are forged in right earnest. Health, Rural Development and Environment are some of the areas in which this convergence is sought. The Jan Chetna Kendras or 'clusters' are being used as an 'open window' for dissemination of information of other development departments and schemes. Many districts have brought out simplified booklets on development schemes for neo-literates that have enabled the neo-literate to make informed choices.

A village library movement is yet another initiative that has been launched by the districts in the post-literacy phase. There is a great scope for creation of a pool of literature and districts are encouraged to hold writers' workshops and encourage local talent to write stories including folk tales in the local languages, apart from encouraging neo-literate newsletters and magazines.

The post literacy programme also undertakes a 'mopping up operation' to enable those who had dropped out of the campaign or were unable to achieve the NLM norms, to attain them through remediation.

In keeping with the belief that each district is unique and its requirements are district specific, the NLM has avoided offering a single model for post-literacy. Instead it has been left to the local genius of the Zila Saksharta Samiti to create a model which suits the specific needs of the district and its learners.

To ensure that there is no time lag between the conclusion of the basic literacy phase and the start of post literacy activities which could result in regression for neo-literates, NLM has laid a great deal of emphasis on the planning and launching of Post Literacy Programmes. These are sanctioned when 25% of the learners have completed Primer II. Thus the Total Literacy Phase and Post Literacy Phase overlap in most districts.

A quick survey is undertaken at the launch of the post literacy campaigns as the target group of post literacy includes not only the neo-literates emerging out of the literacy campaigns but other learners at different levels of literacy as well . A system of external evaluation has been envisaged to assess the achievements of the district in fulfilling the goals of post literacy, . Post literacy evaluation concentrates not merely on evaluating learning skills but also on other themes of post literacy including convergence with other development programmes, skill upgradation etc. In keeping with the NLM's thrust on transparency and objectivity, the agencies assigned to undertake the final evaluation are external to the state.

Post literacy campaigns are successfully ensuring that neo-literates make a smooth transition from guided learning to self-learning so that they can proceed towards life-long education.


MAIN FEATURES

I. Is be treated as a preparatory stage for Continuing Education (CE)-Eventual dovetailing of PLP into CE to be constantly kept in mind.

  • Unlike TLC, not be regarded as a 'Campaign' but as a 'Programme'.
  • Duration to be strictly restricted to 365 days.
  • Duration to be reckoned from the date of receipt of funds from the Government of India.
  • No extension of time-Unspent balance to be refunded at the end of one year from date of receipt of funds from Government of India.

    II. Preparatory steps to be taken with balance of TLC funds (No Gap between TLC and PLP)
    A. Target to be established by conducting resurvey.
    1. Type of people to be covered
      • Drop outs of TLC
      • Uncovered (gap between figures of TLC survey and enrollment)
      • Neo-Literates
      • New entrants
    2. Modalities of survey:
      • Identification of surveyors.
      • Finalisation / Printing of forms and formats.
      • Orientation of Surveyors by training .
      • Data Collection by surveyors.
      • Actual data collection to be done in one or two days. Data to be collected and compiled.
      • Total duration not more than 30 days for all the above steps.

      B. Environment Building:
      • To be combined effectively with resurvey.

    3. C. Mopping up:
      • Involves transaction of PI, PII, PIII with illiterates , semi-illiterates, neo-illiterates and new entrants.
      • Involves taking stock of availability of primers and procuring more primers where required.
      D.
      • Printing of Post Literacy Primer.
      • Redistribution and stock taking of existing PI, PII and PIII.
      • Printing of new PI, PII , PIII as required.

      III. TRAINING
      • Training has been a weak link in our literacy programmes. Therefore, training should be emphasised and strengthened in PLP.

      1. chain of Training:

      2. (a) KRPs to be trained by SRC only.
        (b) MTs to be trained by KRPs at district level only.
        (c) VTs (PRERAK) to be trained by MTs at Block , Mandal or Panchayat level.
        • Preparation of Training handbook/manual by SRC.
        • Preparation of VT (Prerak) handbook of tasks and duties by SRC.
        • Two phase training an absolute must.
        • Second Phase of training in the 5th month of PLP.
        • Duration of each phase could be 4-5 days.
        • Training ratio of 1.30 to be strictly maintained i.e. 1 KRP to t rain not more than VTs (Preraks).
      3. Prerak's Training
        • Two rounds of Training .
        • Ist ROUND-4 DAYS

        (To be taken up within 15 days of receiving funds from GOI).

        Day 1 - Orientation and motivation. New Features of PLP. Redefining role as prerak in PLP as opposed to role as VT in TLC. How survey and E.B. been conducted.

        Day 2 - What is mopping up and how to do it. Conducting Teaching/Learning of PI/PII/PIII and PL-1.

        Day 3 - Literature and role of SRC. How to run the library. How to organise training programmes. How to handle sales counter.

        Day 4 - Skill building components.
        What is TRYSEM? What are its features and norms?
        What is DWACRA? What are its features and norms?
        Talk by officials of organisations having village level presence such as KVIC, DRDA, DIC etc.
        Jan Shikshan Sansthan (SVP)-Its role and functions in skill development (talk by Director SVP where possible).

        • 2nd ROUND - DAYS

            Day 1 - Feedback and interaction.
            Review of drop-outs and replacement of Preraks.

            Day 2 - Teaching/Learning. Progress of up. Progress of PL-1 transaction. Review of Library activities. Stock-taking of receipt of books and titles.

            Day 3 - Full scale review of skill building activities. Review of dissemination of awareness about issues of development, empowerment etc.

      IV. PROFILE OF PRERAK
      • Age: ideally more than 21 years. In case of non availability, 18+is o.k.
      • Resident of the village and belonging to the local community as far as possible.
      • Preferable to be one of our literacy 'Volunteers'.
      • Woman Prerak to be encouraged.
      • We can 'weed out' the group of school children from the category of Preraks.
      • Minimum education qualification of Prerak to be 10th pass as far as possible.

      V. ACTIVITIES TO BE TAKEN UP IN A CLUSTER
      • transaction of PI, PII, PIII AND PL-1.
      • Organisation of reading sessions.
      • Issue and distribution of books.
      • display and sale of books. Introduction of mobile library through bicycles.
      • Marketing of the Centre to the client group in the village Panchayat.
      • Organisation of Skill development training sessions.
      • Awareness generation through camps/sessions/discussions/dissemination.
      • Organisation of a small interest group to help Prerak in running cluster activities.

      VI. ROLE OF PRERAK IN LIBRARY FUNCTIONS
      • Arrange attractive display/exhibition of neo-literate material.
      • Make small catalogue indicating important titles available.
      • Facilitate loaning of books.
      • Organize regular reading sessions.
      • Make suitable arrangements for issue and distribution of books.
      • Organise and manage sale counter.
      • Introduce mobile library facilities through bicycles.

      VII. NEO-LITERATE LITERATURE
      • At least 50 titles in each cluster (3-4 copies of each title).
      • Literature to be sourced from:
        (a) SRC
        (b) NGOs such as BGVS.
        (c) National Book Trust
        (d) Private publishers through means and competitive bidding.
      • Literature may also be developed by ZSS locally through workshops etc.
      • A core specialist Committee for neo-literate to decide on strategy for procurement/development.
      • Core specialist Committee to screen and clear all neo-literate material.
      • Development literature in original form not be distributed .
      • Development literature to be recast in neo-literate form before distribution.
      • Presentation of materials in 'comics' form to be encouraged.

      VIII. SKILL DEVELOPMENT
      • Norms on the basis of TRYSEM/DWACRA except where trades are not mentioned in these schemes.
      • Accessed District Industries Centres and Jan Shikshan Sansthans .
      • Upto 1000 persons to be trained in each PLP. 
      • Types of skills to be chosen should be a judicious mixture of :
        (a) Traditional, need-based, local-specific skills and (b) Market driven, more modern skills for which there exists a potential.

      XI. ROLE OF SRC
      • Training of key resource persons.
      • Development of Trainer's Manual/Hand book.
      • Preparation of PL-1 book.
      • preparation of Neo-literate literature. Involve writers, illustrators and specialists.
      • Expeditious supply of material to clusters.
      • Preparation of Handbook for Preraks-their duties and responsibilities.
      • Periodic Monitoring of PLP materials to assess their suitability, acceptability and popularity.

      X. PREPARATION FOR CE
      • To begin in 9th month.
      • Identification of C.E. Centres and Nodal centres.
      • Identification of Preraks and Assistant Preraks.
      • Preparation of Project Report.
      • Submission of CE Project to State Literacy Mission Authority in 10th month of Post Literacy Programme.

      XI. NEW FINANCIAL PARAMETERS

      ProposedPLC: Rs. 110 Per learner per annum
      Activity
      SurveyRs.2.502%
      Environment BuildingRs.5.505%
      Teaching/Learning MaterialRs.40.7037%
      Training of functionariesRs.22.0020%
      Monitoring & SupervisionRs.11.0010%
      EvaluationRs.5.505%
      AdministrationRs13.5012%
      ContingenciesRs.4.404%
      Skill DevelopmentRs.5.505%
      -----------------------
      Total Rs.110.00100%
      ------------------------



      CHAPTER II

      EVALUATION SYSTEMS UNDER NLM

      2.0 TOTAL LITERACY CAMPAIGNS

      2.1 SELF EVALUATION

      Self evaluation of learning outcomes of the enrolled lear4ners has been built into the body of the three primers used in the TLCs. Each primer contains three tests and it has been assumed that if a learner attempts these tests he/she will have a fairly reliable idea of his learning strengths and weaknesses. This self evaluation would enable the learner to perceive his own pace and progress of learning and should heighten his motivation.

      2.2 INTERNAL EVALUATION

      The terminal tests (T-3, T-6 and T-9) are used for the internal evaluation of the campaign. the records of completion of T-3 , T-6 and T-9 by the learners are supposed to be maintained at the village/Panchayat levels.

      2.3 EXTERNAL EVALUATION

      Beside the self-evaluation of the learners and internal evaluation of the campaign, every campaign districts is subject to two more evaluations namely 'Concurrent Evaluation' (process evaluation) which is carried out by the agencies within the State and 'Evaluation' (summative evaluation) which is carried out by agencies outside the State . The concurrent evaluation focuses on various activities in the process of implementation of the programme so as to detect bottlenecks, short-falls and deficiencies and suggest corrective measures to ensure optimum efficiency. Summative evaluation, which is normally executed at the end of the programme , mainly focuses on leaning outcomes success rate vis--vis the target and the impact of the campaign on the social , cultural and economic environment of the Project are. This new approach of evaluation adopted by NLM is aimed at ensuring complete transparency and thus enhancing the credibility of the results declared.

      3.0 EVALUATION OF POST-LITERACY PROGRAMMES

      3.1 A comprehensive and objective evaluation of each phase of the literacy programme has always been a part of the strategy of the National Literacy Mission to help the programme attain its objectives and obtain valuable feedback about its at the district level. It is thus only desirable that the methodology of such evaluations is standardized to lend them adequate comparability without which they lose part of their utility. However , such standardisation should be done separately for the basic literacy, Post - literacy and continuing education phases of the programme. This is because there are modifications in the immediate objectives of the programme as the programme progressed form one phase to the next. Evaluation methodologies too therefore need corresponding modifications. One can, therefore, specify the objectives of the evaluation of the post - literacy programme at two levels:- general objectives and specific objectives.

      3.2 GENERAL OBJECTIVES

      1. To evaluate the extent to which PLP objectives, both at the individual and at the community level, have been achieved;
      2. To assess to what extent the requisite activities to attain the stated objectives of PLP were undertaken and their effectiveness.
      3. To provide guidance to Zilla Saksharta Samiti (ZSS) to take corrective measures to overcome shortcomings and bottlenecks.

      To attain the above objectives, the evaluating agencies may split their study into two parts-Mid-term Evaluation and final evaluating in case of post literacy projects sanctioned for tow year duration . The Mid-term Evaluation will be undertaken after the programme has completed nearly half of its planned duration. Its purpose is not to pass judgment about the effectiveness of PLP , but to identify the shortcomings and bottlenecks and suggest corrective measures to the ZSS. It would essentially be a process evaluation. The Final Evaluation of PLP will be carried out at the end of the programme and it will be more or less and impact evaluation. In the case of Projects sanctioned for one year duration only , the objectives of the mid-term evaluation will be merged with final evaluation. Thus only one final evaluation will be undertaken for PL Programmes of one year duration and this will be towards the end of the programme.


      CHAPTER III


      MID-TERM EVALUATION


      4.1 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF MID-TERM EVALUATION

      The Mid-term evaluation, as mentioned before , is a process evaluation. Therefore certain local variations in processes are quite likely. But one can easily identify the following dimensions as the specific as the specific objectives of the Mid-term Evaluation.

      1. To assess the retention and upgradation of literacy skills acquired during the TLC.
      2. To assess the status of mopping-up operations.
      3. To assess the extent of the use of literacy skills acquired by the neo-literate.
      4. To assess the vocational and skill development programmes made available to the neo-literate.
      5. To assess the activities initiated for empowerment of woman.
      6. To study the relevance of reading materials (other than PL-I Primer) Provided to the neo-literate.
      7. To assess the efficacy of library services provided by the Prerak at the cluster.
      8. To study the adequacy and efficiency of the organisational systems to organise the campaign.
      9. To assess the effectiveness of training provided to the Preraks.

      4.2 PURPOSE

      The Purpose and spirit behind the Mid-term Evaluation is to study the bottlenecks, difficulties, problems and obstacles and discuss them with the ZSS to enable them to improve the Programme. The role of the evaluating agency would be to help and guide. The evaluating agency is to be considered a part and parcel of the programme with the only difference that it is not there to 'cover up' but to "unearth", and thus to help ZSS and NLM to weed out obstacles and facilitate healthy growth of the programme.

      Every Post -literacy campaign is supposed to design and implement an effective Management Information System (MIS) which can generate useful information to facilitate effective decision making . An effective MIS clearly reflects the health of the programme.

      The success of failure of the literacy programmes may be attributed to factors such as motivation of learners, administration and supervision, environment building efforts, training of functionaries, conducting teaching/learning activities etc. The only way to ascertain the effectiveness of the activities or inputs essential for the attainment of the stated goal is to evaluate them during the process of implementation itself so that appropriate remedial measures can be taken at the right time .Thus , the mid-term evaluation of the activities becomes unavoidable and crucial in goal attainment.

      4.3 WHO SHOULD CONDUCT MID-TERM EVALUATION AND WHEN

      Who

      • Mid-term Evaluation of the post-literacy phase of the adult education programme is to be undertaken by empanelled agencies located within the State but outside the concerned .

      • All the State Directorates of Adult Education have prepared a panel of agencies with good infrastructure such as computer facilities, experienced faculty members etc. These agencies are to be properly oriented by the State Directorates before assigning to them the task of mid term evaluation.

      • The Chairman of the ZSS should approach the State Directorate of Adult Education as soon as a district becomes eligible for mid-term evaluation so that a panel of 3-5 evaluation agencies is nominated.

      • The Directorate will forward a panel of these agencies to the district and will also inform the concerned agencies in writing. One of these agencies will be selected by the chairman of ZSS on the criteria of suitability and response. No quotations/tenders need be invited.

      • A contract/agreement (as provided in Annexure III) must be entered into between ZSS and the chosen evaluation agency.

        When
      • A Mid-term evaluation should be conducted only if the PLP project sanctioned is of two years duration. It should in the case be conducted at the end of the eleventh month.

      • The agency may plan its visit to the district as soon as the letter from the ZSS is received by them. They complete the whole process of evaluation within two to three visits to the district depending upon the convenience , distance, time etc.

      • The approximate time required for the mid-term evaluation of the district is 30 to 40 days. Please see Annexure)


      The brief report prepared by the agency after the completion of the mid-term evaluation should be submitted to the District Collector immediately. A discussion may then be held on the deficiencies noticed and corrective measures suggested to improve the implementation of the programme.

      4.4 METHODOLOGY
      The following methodology is suggested taking into consideration each of the objectives as enumerated above:

      1. To assess the retention and upgradation of literacy knowledge and skills acquired during TLC

        For attaining this specific objective, it would be necessary to conduct learners' tests as is done in the course of external evaluation of TLC . However, the sample size would be smaller here (about 2 percent of the PLP learner or 2000 learners which ever is less). A test paper of higher difficulty level (than TLC) will be administered to the sampled PLP learners and the study should indicate both the success rate as well as ascertain the factors behind retention/upgradation of literacy skills or absence of them.

      2. Ton assess the status of mopping-up operation

        To ascertain the status of the mopping operation each ZSS is to resurvey the district to assess the load for mopping up operation. This will include the learners who have not been able to achieve the National Literacy Mission norms during the TLC phase, learners who have dropped out during TLC phase , the learners who could not join the TLC campaign during the period and new non-literate entrants in the target group (15 to 35years). To begin with, the ZSS might be requested to submit a status report about the mopping-up operations. secondly, the evaluator should also conduct separate learners' tests (for those learners who were covered during mopping up operations) with a test paper of equal difficult level as is used for external evaluation of TLC . The two learners' tests (one for objective I and the other for objective 2) would be conducted in the same sample village, but with two different test papers.

      3. To assess the extent of use of literacy skills acquired by the neo-literate

        It is possible to prepare a long list of activities/situations where a literate person uses his/her literacy skills . But for the evaluation study , we may consider the following list of activities which are very important:

        • reading of letters (missives)
        • reading of name plates of buses and shops etc.
        • reading of newspapers
        • reading of books/magazines/posters etc.
        • writing representations/petitions etc.
        • writing income-expenditure statements
        • writing personal letters

      4. (The evaluator may, however, modify this list depending upon the local specificities)

        A suitable database for attaining this objective will be a survey in the sample villages. Besides conducting the learners' tests, a supplementary questionnaire should be administered to the learners asking whether they have used their literacy skills in the activities/situations listed above.

      5. To assess the vocational and skill development programmes made available to the neo-literate

        The ZSS may be requested first to furnish the details about the activities that it had undertaken in this regard. Both the list of activities as well as well as the duration, frequency and location of each vocational/skill development programmes should be provided. The ZSS should also furnish the details about the arrangements made to establish linkages with development departments such as DIC/ DRDA / DWACRA /TRYSEM / Health / Agriculture / Animal husbandry/Jan Shiksha Sansthans etc., in the sampled villages. The supplementary survey may be conducted to collect information directly from the learners about:

        • whether they have joined any these vocational / skill upgrading programmes and
        • whether they think that these programmes are of some use to them.
      6. Discussion with knowledgeable persons (both in the sample villages or elsewhere) may also yield valuable information about the extent and effectiveness of vocational/skill development programmes during PLP in the district

      7. To enlist the activities initiated for empowerment of women:

        Several indicators are available to assess the efforts towards empowerment of women. Some of them are:

        • Formation of groups such as mahila mandals/DWACRA groups / self-help groups / professional groups.
        • Professional education activities.
        • Health camps.
        • Legal aid camps.
        • Enforcement of laws relating to women (property rights, equal / minimum wages, maternity leave, etc.) and
        • Participation of (neo-literate) women in various statutory bodies, including the Panchayats.

      8. Both the ZSS and the responsible persons at the villages / district headquarters may provide the required information on all the above indicators. The evaluator should also collect information about the role played by ZSS , other NGO's , government departments and Panchayat bodies in initiating or supporting such women empowerment activities . Selected case studies will also be of great relevance in attaining objective.

      9. To study the relevance of reading materials (other than PL-1) provided to the neo-literate

        The NLM provides financial resources to the ZSS for supplying adequate reading materials to the neo-literates during the PLP t help them retain and upgrade their literacy skills. The supplementary survey in the sample villages may collect information from neo-literates directly whether they have received such reading material and whether they had found them useful. Further , the ZSS may also provide the details about which books they had procured (along with the quantity) and the mode of distribution . Finally, a set of distributed reading materials might be examined by some experts (on preparation of literacy materials) vis--vis their language style, content and other relevant dimensions.

      10. TO assess the efficacy of library services provided by the Prerak at the cluster

        This can be done by observing and examining the records of the books, magazines, news-papers/letters etc. which are available with the Prerak. The observation will include the number of the reading materials available, the number of persons making use of the library daily/weekly / monthly , the role of the Prerak in helping the users in locating and understanding the required material , and helping with further references if desired, display of books and other reading material in the library, upkeep of the library , adequacy of arrangements for the sitting of users, lighting of the reading room, library timings and its suitability to users, any sale facility available for popular reading materials, any sale done so far and the number of persons donating books, magazines , furniture, darries and money etc. to the library.

      11. To study the adequacy and efficiency of the organisational system to implement the PLP

        The literacy programme in India , as envisaged by the NLM, is a long - term one and the primary agency entrusted with the responsibility of implementing the programme is the ZSS , a non - government organisation. The organisational strength of the ZSS is obviously an essential pre-condition for the success of PLP (and later the CE programme). An evaluation of its organisational strength should therefore ideally be a part of the PLP evaluation too. A suggestive list of the markets of the organisational strength of any ZSS are as follows:

        (a) Composition of the General Body and Executive Committee of the ZSS , different committees of the ZSS, frequency of meeting of these committees, and the regularity of attendance of the members of different committees.
        (b) Adequacy of the planning of PLP by ZSS , details of the survey for PLP , details of environment building activities , participation of NGO's in PLP, and training activities for PLP.
        (c) Networking of resource persons and agencies at the district level for training (KRPs and MTs) or organisational work. vocational/skill upgradation programmes, integration of literacy and development programmes , involvement of media persons and members of the intelligentsia.
        (d) System of monitoring adopted by the ZSS , information flow from and to block or village level committees. information flow from and to DAE/SRC and NLM, and the mode of internal evaluation planned for PLP.
        (e) The inventory of material resources at the disposal of the ZSS, such as various manuals, guidelines, designs, audio - visual materials relevant to literacy programme prescribed by DAE, SRC or NLM and the extent to which these materials are studied and followed by the ZSS.

        The proposed survey of the sample villages for other dimensions of PLP evaluation would automatically provide an opportunity to the evaluator to assess the strength of the ZSS along the indicators mentioned above. For further information, the evaluator may have discussions with ZSS officials as well as examine the records maintained at the ZSS office. A third source of information about the activities and strength of the ZSS would be newspapers reports on the organisation.

      12. To assess the effectiveness of training of the Preraks
        This can be done by interviewing the trained Preraks in the field at random.

        5.0 SAMPLING PLAN FOR FIELD SURVEY

        5.1 It has already been mentioned before that there would be two earners' test on PLP evaluation , one for assessing the progress of mopping -up operations. The inverse for drawing the sample for the first test would be the learners who are participating or have participated in PLP. For the second test, the universe would consist of learners who have completed at least the Primer-II (of TLC stage) during the mopping - up operations.

        5.2 For the field survey , the last unit of the sample will be a "village". If village is used as the last unit of the sample, a stratified random sample with proportional allocation among blocks might be used as the sampling with proportional allocation among blocks might be used as the sampling method. In case of a PLP canter being used as the last unit of sample , a circular systematic sampling may be used to draw the required sample . In both cases, all the learners in a village/centre are to be tested either on the firs or on the second test paper, depending on whether he/she is a PL learner or one brought under the programme through mopping -up operations. If less than 70 per cent of the learners appear in the above test(s), a second visit might be made to cover the absentees during the first visit. If it is not possible to cover 70 per cent of the learners even after the second visit, the reasons for the absence are to be ascertained.

        5.3 As regards the sample size , it should be 2 per cent of the PLP learners or 2000 learners, whichever is less for testing the 3 R's during the Mid-term Evaluation. However, as usually done in the TLC stag, the ZSS should always arrange for testing of all the learners as a part of the internal evaluation process.

        6. TIME DURATION

        The study should be completed within a period or 30 to 40 days from the day of the signing of the contract and the release of the first installment to the first installment to the evaluating agency.

        7.0 BUDGET

        The suggested approximate budget for the Mid-term evaluation for an average, sized district should be about Rupees three lakhs.




      CHAPTER IV

      FINAL
      EVALUATION


      1.0 INTRODUCTION

      1.1 The National Literacy Mission has sanctioned some post literacy projects of two years duration in certain districts in the past. But currently the practice is to sanction post literacy programmes for one year duration only. Therefore , the time for the final evaluation of these two projects also differs. In the case of a project sanctioned for two years, the final evaluation will be undertaken during the 23rd month of the project. A project which has been sanctioned for only one year will be finally evaluated during the 11th month of the project. While the evaluating agency will evaluate, the sampled villages/learning centres and the ZSS will undertake the evaluation of the rest of the learners simultaneously.

      2.0 PROCEDURE

      1. The ZSS will intimate the evaluation procedure during the 20th month in case of a two year project and in the 9th month in the case of a one year Project.

      2. The ZSS will approach the State Directorate of Adult Education (SDAE) to assign an agency to carry out the evaluation of the district. The State Directorate will assess the readiness of the PLC district and approach the National Literacy Mission for undertaking the evaluation.

      3. National Literacy Mission will recommend five to six agencies from its panel from outside the State to the State Directorate and ZSS.

      4. The National Literacy Mission will also inform those agencies which have been recommended by it to the State Directorate of Adult Education and the ZSS.

      5. The ZSS will correspond with all of them and enter into a contract with the most suitable agency.

      6. The agency is to be properly oriented by the State Directorate before assigning the task of evaluation to it.


      2.1 The final evaluation will be carried out at the end of the PLP programme. This May also be called impact Evaluation / Impact study. It may be mentioned here that detail impact evaluation was kept out of the External evaluation of TLC for the primary reason that the agency would not have the time to carry out an in-depth study and that the impact of programmes such as literacy can only be seen after a sufficient lapse of time. By the end of the PL programme , however , the impact can be studied meaningfully . The isolation of the effects of a literacy programme is not an easy research task when, as we know , there are many other casual factors and programmes operating . It will therefore, necessary to design appropriate tools by applying analytical methods and carefully out field surveys to bring out the impact scientifically.

      2.2 The experience gained during the Mid-term Evaluation and findings of the same will be quite useful in planning the Final evaluation and the preparation of tools . since the evaluation agency would have made certain suggestions to the Zilla Saksharata Samiti during the Mid-term Evaluation, the actions taken and their effectiveness can also be studied.

      3.0 OBJECTIVES

      The following dimensions are identified as the specific objectives of the final evaluation:

      1. To study the extent to which the corrective measures suggested during the Mid-term Evaluation have been undertaken by the ZSS;
      2. To assess the accuracy of the re-survey carried out at the beginning of the PLP;
      3. To evaluate the impact of the second round of environment building activities;
      4. To accurately estimate the success of the mopping up operation;
      5. To accurately estimate the number of persons who have now completed Primers 2 and 3 ;
      6. To accurately estimate the number of persons who have completed PL Primer-I;
      7. To accurately estimate the number and percentage of persons made literate. This would include those made literate in the TLC phase as well as those made literate in the PLP phase;
      8. To study the quality of Post Literacy materials produced as well as procured;
      9. To study how the libraries in the clusters have been organised and the degree of access of the neo-literates to reading material; through reading , borrowing, and sale facilities;
      10. To carefully assess how the preraks/VTs in the clusters have been chosen , whether their average age is above 21 years and whether they are invariably non-students;
      11. To study the quality of the training programme. How effectively, how often and how consistently have the preraks/VTs in the clusters been trained?
      12. To study the impact of vocational and skill development programmes on individual learners and the community;
      13. To study the awareness level of neo-literates, the access they have to various development programmes;
      14. To study the extent to which the learners in particular , and the community in general , are able to overcome the impediments which stand in their way for achieving socio-economic development;
      15. To study the impact of activities initiated for the empowerment of women;
      16. To study the direct and indirect effects of literacy programmes (TLC=PLC) individual learners and the community, if any;
      17. To study the preparedness for launching the Continuing Education Programme.


      4.0 METHODOLOGY

      The following methodology is suggested taking into consideration each of the objectives as enumerated above:

      4.1 To study to what extent the corrective measures suggested during the midterm evaluation have been undertaken by the ZSS

      For attaining this objective, it will be necessary to dialogue with the ZSS functionaries at the district level and also at the block level about the application of corrective measures suggested in the report of the Mid-term Evaluation should be covered . The reasons, if any, for not taking steps for any of these corrective measures should also be reported.

      4.2 To assess accuracy of the re-survey carried out at the beginning of the PLP

      This can be assessed by taking 2% random sample of the re-survey carried out at the beginning of the PLP. The agency should obtain the resurvey records from the ZSS and randomly select 2% sample from these. The sample obtained can be crosschecked in the field.

      4.3 To evaluate the impact of the second round of the environment building activities

      The information regarding the various environment activities carried out can be had from the ZSS functionaries and crossed checked at the field level from the formal and non-formal leaders, the key-resource persons and the Preraks . After ascertaining this the impact of the most important activities on the community in general and on the learners in particular can be assessed by preparing the appropriate proformae for each of the selected activity.

      4.4 To accurately estimate the success of the mopping - up operation

      The evaluating agency has to collect information by studying the records maintained by the ZSS regarding the number of non-literates enrolled during the TLC, number of dropouts during the TLC campaign period , number of the enrolled learners who have achieved NLM norms, the number of learners who could not achieve NLM norms and the number of new non - literate entrants because of the time taken at the TLC phase . The success will be estimated by taking the universe to be the number of non-literates who could not join TLC , the number of enrolled learners who dropped out during the campaign period, the number of learners who could not attain the NLM norms and the new non-literate entrants. The next step is to determine how many of these have been covered under the mopping-up operation and how many have achieved NLM norms. This has to be done on a sample basis taking 5% sample of the learners under the mopping -up operation and testing them as per TLC test papers for reading , writing and numeracy.

      4.5 To accurately estimate the number of persons who have now completed primers 2 and 3

      This information will be available with the ZSS and can be cross checked from the files.

      4.6 To accurately estimate the number of persons who have completed PL Primer-I

      This information would be available with the ZSS & must be cross checked at the learners' level.

      4.7 To accurately estimate the number and percentage of persons made literate

      This would include those made literate in the TLC phase as well as those made literate in the PLC phase. The information would be available with the ZSS but must be carefully and accurately compiled.

      4.8 To study the quality of post Literacy materials (produced as well as procured)

      The details of the post literacy material can be had from the ZSS along with their distribution . A set of distributed materials must be examined by some experts vis--vis their language style , content and other relevant dimensions. The extent to which these materials reached the learners, were appreciated and made use of by them must be assessed.

      4.9 To study how the libraries in the clusters have been organised and the degree of access of the neo-literates to reading material through reading, borrowing an sale facilities

      The information can be collected by examining the records available in the libraries about the borrowing of books , observing the functioning of libraries and by interviewing the neo-literates about the above mentioned aspects.

      4.10 To carefully assess how the preraks/VTs in the clusters have been chosen, whether their average age is above 21 years and whether they are invariable non-students
      This information can be had by interviewing ZSS staff members, records available, and interviewing the preraks themselves.

      4.11 To study the quality of the training programme and the effectively, frequency and consistency of the training of the preraks/VTs in the clusters

      The evaluating agency could get this information by examining the records available with the ZSS , interviewing the master trainers, key resource persons and the preraks/VTs and observing them in the filed situation.

      4.12 To study the impact of the vocational and skill development programme on the learner in particular and on the community in general

      The main focus of the study will be assess whether the skill development programme have contributed toward economic advancement. Since there is emphasis on women's development , it should be studied whether additional economic opportunities were created for women with a view to achieve economic independence. self employment/income generating opportunities provided due to skill development programmes must be assessed .
      Another important aspect to be covered under this objective is to assess whether social mobilization and organised group activities took place for improvement of community resource in relation to the skill development programme.

      4.13 To study the awareness level of neo-literates, their access to various development programmes and the benefits derived by them

      In order to cover this objective it will be necessary to carry out:

      • district and area specific assessment of knowledge of , access to , and benefits derived from various socio-economic development programmes;
      • assessment of convergence of services by different development Programmes
      • networking pattern/linkages with different departments.


      4.14 To study the extent to which the learners in particular and the community in general are able to overcome the impediments which stand in their way of socio-economic development
      It is possible to identify various impediments/problems and find out the steps initiated to overcome them. The impediments/problems could also be analyzed by considering various structures, such as caste and community structure , market structure financial structure etc. In addition , there may be administrative and procedural impediments. Various issues/aspects need to be covered taking into consideration the local conditions in the district under study.

      4.15 To study the impact of the activities initiated for the empowerment of women

      The first step would be to review the activities implemented in specified areas such as health, education, mother-child care, family welfare , thrift and savings , legal awareness etc. Activities on social issues initiated by women, such as anti-liquor movement , demand for drinking water, functioning of ration shops, etc. should be studied. It should be ascertained whether self-propelling groups of women were organised. Thereafter their functioning would need to be assessed. In addition to the inquiries with the ZSS , focus group discussions would be useful for this purpose.

      4.16 To study direct and indirect effects of literacy programmes (TLC+PLC) on individual learners and the community, if any

      A number of items could be listed for studying the impact on the individual learners and a questionnaire could be listed for studying the impact on that basis which can then be canvassed to sample learners by the interview method. some indicative items are:

      • additional changes (superstition, social evils, gender education of adults/sibling/children;)
      • environmental awareness;
      • organisational skills;
      • adoption of small family norm;
      • attitude towards sending children, specifically the girl children, to school;
      • adopting income generation programmes;
      • legal literacy;
      • communication skills
      • AIDS awareness


      The list could be enlarged by adding relevant items of special importance for the study - district. This is a crucial part of the final evaluation and a well designed questionnaire will have to be developed for the purpose.

      4.17 To study the preparedness for launching the Continuing Education Programme
      This preparedness can be assessed by observing the number of the centres identified for continuing education, creation of scope for application of functional literacy , mechanism for dissemination of information on development programme provision of facilities for library and reading rooms etc.

      7.0 SAMPLING FRAME

      1. The village/ward will be the last unit of sampling.
      2. Stratification will be necessary if there are pockets with predominantly (more than 50%) SC/ST minority learners;
      3. The sample size would be 2% or 5,000 of the universe, which ever is the minimum, for studying the achievement in the 3Rs. A higher sample should be drawn to take care of sample loss. For undertaking an in-depth study to assess the other aspects of the programme such as skill-development , social-mobilisation, empowerment of women etc., a sample of 1,000 participants will be selected from the 2% 15000 sample selected to study the 3 Rs . as mentioned above.
        All of the learners under mopping - up operation in the sampled villages would be tested by giving the TLC Test to ascertain whether they had acquired the required reading, writing and numeracy skills as per the NLM norms. Apart from the test administered by the external evaluation agency on the learners under mopping-up operation, the ZSS will undertake the testing of the learners under this operation on other villages/towns on a cent-percent basis so that these learners are psychologically satisfied that they have also been tested for their learning skills.
      4. At least one or two contingent villages in each block should be selected randomly.


      8.0 CONSTRUCTION OF THE TEST PAPER

      A test paper to measure all the competencies (reading , writing and numeracy) at a somewhat higher level will be developed by the evaluating agency to test whether knowledge and skill have increased as compared to the TLC level.

      TEST ADMINISTRATION

      • In the selected sample villages, in principal all the learners (100%) must be tested. However , conceding the possibility of the absence of learners on the day of evaluation for various reasons, attempt must be made to cover at least 70% of the learners. For this purpose, if necessary, villages may be revisited by the evaluation team.
      • Causes of absenteeism must be ascertained and indicated in the report.


      10.0 QUALITY OF PL INDEX

      The Post Literacy Phase has a number of objectives. All of them have to be evaluated. But the importance of certain objectives is comparatively more than the other objective. Therefore , the quality of PL index has been suggested giving due consideration to the importance of the objectives. A scheme of weighted has been prepared (see annexure). It is a composite index based on the performance of a district in respect of the 17 listed objectives. Thus, by this method, districts can be compared on their performance.

      11.0 TIME DURATION

      The study must be completed within 80-90 days after the signing of the contract and the release of the first installment by the ZSS. A calendar of activities with indicative time frames is placed at Annexure-II.

      12.0 BUDGET

      Indicative budget for the final evaluation is Rs.3 to 4 lakhs depending upon the size of the sample and the terrain of the district concerned.




      CHAPTER V

      QUALITY OF PL INDEX

      The performance of the TLC districts were easy to compare as the main objective of the campaign was acquisition of 3 Rs by the learners. It is the foundation on which a neo-literate is to erect a structure of his/her own liking, based upon his / her left short-term and long-term needs. But during the Post-literacy phase (PLP) the objectives of the programmes are not easily measurable in terms of scores/percentages and aggregates. It is clear that certain objectives of the PLP are more important then the others. For example , acquiring a higher level of literacy, mopping up operation, preparation and procurement of reading material suitable for neo-literates, extending library facilities, undertaking the corrective measures suggested by the evaluating agency, estimating the number of neo-literates (TLC+PLC) ensuring the quality of the training programmes for preraks may be more important than the other objectives. Therefore, attainment of a more valued objective is to be appreciated more. It is therefore, obvious that if the achievements of the districts are to be compared with those of others, the objectives must be assigned comparative weights.

      In short , it is essential to suggest a common applicable methodology for reaching an objective assessment for the sake of making comparisons. Hence, it was decided to give appropriate weightage to all the seventeen objectives of PLP according to their importance in a given situation. The scheme for allotting the weightage to the objectives and then reaching a composite score for comparison has been suggested in the Annexure XII of text, (Quality of PL Index). The method has been explained along with the appropriate mathematical formula. The composite score of one distinct can be compared with the composite score of another to reach an objective conclusion.



      CHAPTER VI

      FORMAT OF REPORT




      1. Executive summary
        • - Date of sanction of the Project
          - Amount sanctioned
          - Date of release of first installment
          - Target number of neo-literates as per survey
              - TLC qualified (as per NLM)
              - Could not achieve NLM norms
              - Drop out
              - Could not be enrolled under TLC
              - New entrants
          - Sample size
               - Target
               - Actual
               - Interviewed
          - Composite quality of PL index (Indicate number)


      2. Objectives of PLP
          - General
          - Specific

      3. Plan of Action
          - Resurvey
          - Target group
          - Identification & Training of KRPs, MTs & Preraks
          - MIS
          - Training Center
          - Libraries
          - Reading material prepared/procured
          - Method of conducting of centres/libraries
          - Skill development programmes/activities


      4. Universe
        Sampling procedure
        Sample size
          - Target
          - Actual available
          - Actual interviewed/tested for assessing the learning skills and in depth study


      5. Results
          - Objective-wise
          - composite Quality of PL Index
          - Innovation observed


      6. Conclusion, Recommendations & Suggestions