Section 1

Policy Initiative
The Concept
The Indian Context
Role of National Literacy Mission2

1. Policy Initiative
1.1 The Scheme of Continuing Education (CE) was launched in 1995 as a fully funded centrally sponsored scheme. The scheme initially envisaged 100 per cent assistance to the states for the first three years of implementation. The state governments were required to share 50 per cent of the expenditure during the 4th and 5th years of the project, and thereafter take over total responsibility for the programme. The programme was to be taken up after the conclusion of the total/post literacy campaign in a district with the objective of providing life-long learning facilities. The basic unit of the scheme was the continuing education centre (CEC) with a nodal continuing education centre (NCEC) overseeing the working of a cluster of CECs.

1.2 On the basis of our experience and feedback from states based on various workshops and seminars, a need was felt to revise the financial parameters and to introduce some basic changes in the pattern of implementation of this innovative scheme.

1.3 The approval of the revised Scheme by the Government on November 30, 1999 has steered clear the function of imparting basic literacy and transaction of literacy primer in the continuing education phase and brought forth an upward revision in financial assistance to CECs/NCECs. It has also been decided that one nodal continuing education centre will be established for a cluster of 10-15 continuing education centres.

1.4 CECs and NCECs were hitherto being manned by a Prerak. With a view to strengthen the CECs/NCECs, and also to ensure that residual illiteracy under normal literacy programmes continued to be taken care of, it has been decided to make provision of an Assistant Prerak, both in CECs and NCECs. Specific task assigned to the Assistant Prerak would be to continue ongoing literacy programmes with the assistance of volunteers as in total literacy campaigns/post literacy programmes.

1.5 With a view to strengthening the State Literacy Mission Authorities (SLMAs), a provision has been made in the scheme for recurring grants to SLMAs amounting to Rs. 12.50 lakh, Rs. 10.00 lakh and Rs.7.50 lakh per annum for A, B & C grade SLMAs respectively. The SLMAs are categorised in accordance with their non-literate population. States with illiterate population of above 100 lakh are placed in category ‘A’; category ‘B’ includes states with a non-literate population between 15-100 lakh and those having less than 15 lakh non-literates are termed as category ‘C’. SLMAs will also be entitled to get a share in the administrative grant available to the Zilla Saksharta Samiti (ZSS) under the scheme.

1.6 The historic decision of the Government of India liberalising the provision of financial assistance and strengthening of CEC/NCECs augurs well for the scheme of continuing education. It is hoped that state governments will take full advantage of this opportunity to help all sections of the community to upgrade their skills and enhance their standard of living.

2 The Concept 2.1 The matrix of programmes that constitute the Scheme of Continuing Education, is both a stage in the educational journey of a learner and progression towards the ideal state of a society. It constitutes a milestone in educational attainment because a non-literate person passes through the phases of basic literacy and post literacy and develops a strong demand for further learning inputs. It is also an ideal state because ultimately, what all of us seek, is a social environment in which knowledge and information are important determinants of human development.

2.2 The sheer complexity and contextual specificity of the scheme and concept of Continuing Education (CE) make any attempt to define it in strait-jacket terms an extremely difficult exercise. Even if a definition is attempted, the results are not uniform. Even within a single country, various programmers, academicians and literacy activists have their own understanding of continuing education. Also, each country understands the concept based on its own vision and indigenous requirements. There are two primary reasons for this multiplicity of views. The first can be called normative, in as much as the area of continuing education is inchoate. Thinking in this relatively new field is flexible and open to several interpretations. The second is formal, in the sense that the content and style of the programme is determined by the context of its implementation.

2.3 However, some definitions of continuing education have been attempted by various experts and academic bodies. UNESCO has been a pioneer. Under APPEAL, the UNESCO Sub-Regional Seminar on continuing education held in Canberra, Australia, in November 1987, defined continuing education as a “broad concept which includes all of the learning opportunities all people want or need outside of basic literacy, education and primary education.” We can discern some broad features of continuing education emerging from this definition. It is for literate youth and adults; it is responsive to needs and wants; it includes experiences provided by all education sub-sectors; and it can be defined in terms of opportunity to engage in life-long learning.

2.4 The whole idea predicates itself on the concept of a ‘learning society’. The idea was first advanced by UNESCO in its famous 1972 report, titled “Learning to Be”. According to this UNESCO report, a learning society is one in which all agencies of a society are educational providers, not just those whose primary responsibility is education. Similarly, all citizens should be engaged in learning, taking full advantage of the opportunities provided by the learning society.

Introduction4 2.5 Such an analysis inevitably leads us to two very important conceptual parameters. Firstly, any continuing education programme has to cater to a larger variety of learner groups in an integrated and sustainable way relevant to the learners’ actual living concerns. Secondly, continuing education programmes need to be designed within the contextual peculiarities of the learner. This would mean cross-support to the programme at the grassroots level from the formal, non-formal and informal sub- sectors of education, as well as various other development schemes. It would also entail strong local participation and socio-economic data collection to make the programme effective and responsive to actual requirements.

3. The Indian Context
3.1 In India, the Scheme of Continuing Education is taking shape in the background of the extensive literacy campaigns launched in various parts of the country after the establishment of the National Literacy Mission in May 1988. The idea of post literacy and continuing education programmes, however, had evolved much earlier. In the absence of a learning environment and effective programmes of post literacy and continuing education, the efforts made in literacy programmes yielded limited results. Realising this, the Government started funding a post literacy and continuing education programmes as early as 1982-83. This programme was initially envisioned as a four month post literacy programme and a one year follow-up programme after basic literacy. It was an effort to provide some post literacy support to neo-literates but the programme structure was not elaborately designed.

3.2 When the National Policy of Education was formulated in 1986, considerable attention was given to the need for creation of satisfactory arrangements for post literacy and continuing education. The need to establish continuing education centres for adults; promotion of the reading habit through libraries and reading rooms; use of audio- visual media; programmes of distance education and provision of skill-upgradation and technical skills were regarded as critical factors for a useful post literacy and continuing education programme.

3.3 The Revised Plan of Action formulated as a sequel to the National Policy on Education stated that our adult education programme should include: “Self-directed continuing education in the perspective of lifelong learning through library service, newspapers for neo-literates, Charcha Mandals (discussion groups) and such other activities. This may also include skill development programmes for personal, social and occupational development.”

3.4 With this objective in view, the Government decided in February 1988 to establish Jana Shikshan Nilayams (JSNs), or Public Education Centres. A JSN was set up for every 4-5 villages to cover a population of about 5,000. The intention behind establishing JSNs all over the country in a phased manner was to institutionalise the post literacy and continuing education programme and converge various activities at one nodal centre. JSNs included programmes that were being organised as part of farmer’s training programmes, rural radio forums, youth clubs, women’s groups (mahila mandals), mobile and village library systems and rural reading rooms.

3.5 The Scheme of Post Literacy (PL) and Continuing Education (CE), hinging around JSNs, was formulated at a time when the adult education programmes all over the country were being implemented on a centre-based approach called the Rural Functional Literacy Programme under the overarching policy framework of the National Adult Education Programme, 1978. The JSNs were designed to cater to the needs of neo-literates emerging from the adult education centres and to their continuing education requirements.

4. Role of National Literacy Mission
4.1 The setting up of the National Literacy Mission (NLM) in 1988 was destined to completely change the paradigmatic and conceptual aspects of the adult literacy programme in the country. Adult literacy was no more seen as a simple function of a teacher or instructor teaching a group of adult non-literates at a predetermined centre. Literacy was now visualised as a critical component of human development and as an intrinsic entitlement of the people. Any literacy programme can only be successfully implemented if it draws its strength from the joys and travails of ordinary, common men. The strategy which the NLM adopted for adult literacy was based on voluntary mass-mobilisation and mass-participation in the scientific pursuit of teaching and learning. This pursuit gave birth to total literacy campaigns (TLC) for basic functional literacy and post literacy campaigns (PLC) for post literacy programmes.

4.2 The shift in both strategy and pedagogy necessitated the existing measures of post literacy and continuing education to be put through critical examination. It was not possible to put the cart before the horse in the sense of having a continuing education programme of a different era latched on to the new literacy campaigns. Aware of this difficulty, the Government had the scheme of JSNs evaluated by a social research institute. NLM also constituted, in 1993, an Expert Group under the Chairmanship of Prof. Arun Ghosh to conduct a status-cum-impact evaluation study of TLCs Introduction6 launched in different parts of the country since 1990-91. The Expert Group also conducted a detailed study of post literacy measures and in its report made several important recommendations in regard to the approach and strategy for implementation of PL and CE programmes.

4.3 The findings of the social research institute and the Expert Group occasioned serious discussion and debate within NLM and also among various literacy workers and experts on the nature and profile of the Continuing Education programme. Some important principles emerged out of the review of the earlier CE schemes through the JSNs. These points can be broadly enumerated: l Instead of having the continuing education centres in a cluster of villages, the natural community unit of a ‘tola’ or ‘village’ could be adopted. l There should be some contemporaneity between TLC and post literacy/ continuing education. l The structure and control of the actual operationalisation of the CE programme should have its locus at the basic unit level. l CE programmes should not be operationalised in a campaign mode but must have a more structured appearance which can still work with a ‘sense of mission’. l CE programmes need to effectively address themselves to the socio-economic situation of the community and provide facilitating structures for larger development initiatives. l Strong emphasis should be placed on vocational and skill-development initiatives.

4.4 Based on these broad theoretical objectives a new Scheme of Continuing Education for neo-literates was formulated by NLM in 1995-96. The new scheme drew upon the Indian experience and also the insight gained from the experiences of other countries and UNESCO. The new CE scheme seeks to position itself organically in the flow of Total Literacy Campaigns and Post Literacy Campaigns and work within the overall framework of the adult literacy scenario in India.

Section 2
Structure and Design
Basic Postulates
Layout and Appearance
User-friendly Environment

1. Basic Postulates
1.1 It would be pertinent to first mention some ideas that form the theoretical underpinnings of the CE Scheme as it is implemented in India. These ideas can be listed as:
(a) Basic literacy, post literacy and continuing education need not be viewed as totally separate programmes, but should be seen as forming a coherent learning continuum. Such a stand-point has the following implications:
There should be linkages between basic literacy, post literacy and continuing education.
The three programmes must strive towards a unified programmatic, pedagogic and social perspective.
(b) The CE scheme is intended to establish a responsive, alternative structure for life long learning.
(c) The CE scheme should be capable of responding to the needs of all sections of society.
(d) Learning is not only a function of alphabets but constitutes some aspect of every method of human capacity-building.
(e) Learning should begin at, and be based on, the existing cultural and technical skills of the people and inculcate a sense of pride in them for their accomplishments.

1.2 TLCs have resulted in a positive change in attitude and a new confidence among learners. The stage reached by the learners in a district which has successfully completed the TLC as well as the PLC phase, clearly points towards the need to sustain the educational process and to provide learning opportunities on a continuing basis. As citizens become more aware of the power and significance of education as an agency for improving their lives they tend to plan out longer term learning goals and achieve shorter term learning experiences to meet immediate needs.

1.3 We can, therefore, say that the context of the CE Scheme in India is determined by the following circumstances: l Successful completion of TLC and PLC. l The potential need of adult learners to further enhance their skills on their own terms and at their own convenience. l Raised expectations from literacy and learning. Structure and Design9 l Need for learning arrangements for out of school adolescents and school dropouts. l Need for alternative life-long fora of learning.

1.4 In view of this, the basic parameters which have been kept in mind while formulating the CE scheme are: l Unlike TLC, it is not time specific but organised on a more continuous basis. l Capable of dealing with adult literacy requirements. l Multidimensional and multi-sectoral in scope and delivery system. l Capable of addressing itself to the needs of a large and diverse clientele. l Participative and flexible. l Capable of creating an environment and demand for learning. l Would draw upon facilities provided by existing formal, non-formal and informal sectors of education.

2 Beneficiaries
2.1 The beneficiaries of CE programmes would include the following: l Neo-literates who complete functional literacy/post literacy courses under TLC PLC or other programmes: l School dropouts; l Pass-outs of primary schools; l Pass-outs of non-formal education programme; and l All other members of the community interested in availing opportunities for life-long learning.

3 Structure
3.1 To fulfill the objectives of the programme, the structure of Continuing Education Centres (CECs) and Nodal Continuing Education Centres (NCECs) has been envisaged in the Scheme. Since continuing education is, by definition, provision of opportunities for life-long learning, setting up local community based CECs has become indispensable for effective implementation of the CE programme. The following guiding principles are to be kept in mind while establishing the CECs and NCECs:

Establishment of CECs/NCECs should be planned on an area-specific and community based approach.

Ordinarily, one CEC is to be set up for a population of about 2000 to 2500 in a village so that it caters to the needs of at least 500-1000 neo-literates. Relaxation is permitted in sparsely populated areas.

One NCEC will be established as the basis of a cluster of 10-15 CECs.

The CEC/Nodal CEC will be under the charge of a facilitator called the Prerak, who would be, as far as possible, a member of the local community. A literacy volunteer should be preferred.

3.2 As mentioned above, the principal objective of establishing CECs is to get them to serve as windows or a focal service points where diverse kinds of CE programmes can be taken up for all sections of the population. CECs are established in a district after the completion of TLC and PLC. The broad functions of CECs can be enumerated as follows:
Teaching-learning centre for remaining non-literates and neo-literates.
Library and reading room.
Venue for group discussion.
Venue for vocational training programmes and skill upgradation.
Venue for extension facility of other development departments.
Promoting sports and adventure activities.
Venue for recreational and cultural activities.
A composite information window.
Serve as a community centre..

3.3 Great care is expected to be taken in the setting up of CECs and Nodal CECs in a village. The location and housing of the centres is to be done in active consultation with the local community. The interest of women and the weaker sections of society are to be kept in mind while setting up CECs and NCECs to ensure their unimpeded access. The facilitator should, as far as possible, be a person drawn from the local community. The selection of the facilitator (Prerak) of the centres is to be done with the full consent and participation of the community./

4 Layout and Appearance (of Continuing Education Centre and Nodal Continuing Education Centre)

4.1 A CEC has multiple functions to perform. It is a place for learning, a provider of programmes for basic education, post literacy, equivalency , income-generating activities and quality of life. It is a centre for community functions, a place to upgrade skills and for coordinating the services of government agencies.

4.2 In order that the CEC performs the above functions properly, the community should own the centre. For this purpose the centre should be accessible, functional and user-friendly.

4.3 While the location of the centre will determine its accessibility, the appearance and get-up of the centre will encourage the client group to access it.

4.4 The CEC must have two areas distinctly earmarked for: * library * other activities

4.5 The ideal space for the library would be a room of the size of about 10ft. by l0ft., furnished with a shelf to keep books and other learning materials so that they can be seen by the users.

4.6 For reading and writing, benches should be provided or, if mats or durries are used to sit on floor, desks of short height should also be provided for writing (as in Gujarat). If a computer is provided, it should be kept in this room.

4.7 For activities, which would include other CE programmes, the space should be larger, a medium size hall of dimensions at least 20ft by 15ft would be necessary. This hall should be furnished with durries. Recreational equipment such as a television set should be kept in this hall.

4.8 For keeping sports and cultural equipment and records, a small room of size 5 ft by 5 ft should be constructed/made available.

4.9 The CEC should thus have three rooms; a room for the library, a hall for indoor activities other than the library and a store. The centre must also have facilities for drinking water and toilets. The layout may be as per local traditions and style but the building must be well lit and airy. Structure and Design1 2

5 User-friendly Environment 5.1 In order that the community owns the CEC right from the beginning, it is essential that local people are associated with the design, construction and interior decoration of the centre.

5.2 The name given to the centre by the Village Education Committee should be prominently displayed.

5.3 In the main hall should be displayed at least two charts prepared by neo-literates of the village. The charts should contain the following information:

5.4 CHART 1

  • Postal address of the centre
  • Administrative status
  • Panchayat head
  • Village head
  • Population: male-female
  • Literacy: male-female
  • Main income generating activity Infrastructure
  • Ongoing government schemes
  • Facilities in the Centre
  • Library (Timings)
  • Games
  • Information
  • Any other facilities
This should be a village map prepared by means of the PRA technique involving local participants. The map should indicate location of :
  • CEC
  • Schools
  • Railway station/bus stand
  • Structure and Design
  • Water resources
  • Health centre
  • Government offices
  • Other places of interest.
5.6 The charts must be given a suitable caption by those preparing them such as ‘Know your CE centre’, My Centre, etc.

5.7 In the library, the list of books available, subject-wise and level-wise must also be displayed.

5.8 The information charts and the list of books in the library should be updated at regular intervals. Other items to make the interior beautiful should also be kept.

5.9 The learners should take responsibility for the upkeep, cleanliness and maintenance of the centre. The Prerak should be able to motivate small groups to take this responsibility by rotation so that all are involved over a period of time. Session 3
Management and Funding

Job Responsibilities of CE Functionaries
Job Responsibilities of Preraks
Job responsibility of Assistant Prerak
Job Responsibility of Nodal Preraks
Role of State Resource Centres in Continuing Education
Research in the Field of Adult Learning
Resource Support
Project Approval

Management and Funding
1. Management

1.1 The overall management of the Scheme of Continuing Education vests, at the district level, with the Zilla Saksharta Samiti (ZSS) or the District Literacy Committee. Funds for the programme will be provided to the ZSS who in turn will pass it on to the local implementors, i.e. the VECs, NGOs, Panchayati Raj bodies, Preraks, etc. The management structure can be depicted as:

2. Job Responsibilities of CE Functionaries
2.1 Job Responsibilities of Preraks
A. Establishing the Centre
    Arranging the layout
  • Distribution of space
  • Preparation of information charts
  • Display of charts, posters prominently
  • Contacting/informing community about the services provided by the centre
  • Getting it inaugurated by a community leader
  • Updating the information charts at fixed intervals
  • Maintaining the furniture and equipment with the help of local people
    B Establishing a Library and Reading Room
  • Designing the layout
  • Arranging the furniture, bookshelf, according to the layout design
  • Arranging books, newspapers and magazines (print non-print) in a systematic and reader-friendly manner
  • Scheduling the working hours of library and reading sessions
  • Maintaining issue and stock register
  • Displaying new arrivals
  • Conducting and facilitating reading sessions
  • Identifying reading/learning needs and preferences of the community
  • Communicating reading/learning needs and preferences of community
  • Communicating reading/learning needs and preferences to the ZSS for supply of relevant material
  • Knowing the content of each title procured in the library
  • Providing feedback to the ZSS about relevance and utility of reading material
    C. Organising Lecture/Demonstration Sessions on Developmental Activities, Government Schemes and Programmes
  • Identifying themes/topics as per community requirements. Communicating these to the ZSS
  • l Informing the community about the date and time of scheduled activity
  • Making physical and other arrangements for these activities and recording the minutes of such deliberations/sessions
    D. Organising Sports and Games
  • Listing local popular sports and games in the area Management and Funding
  • Fixing up timings of sports and games
  • Maintaining contact/liaison with youth clubs/mahila mandals, etc.
  • Organising sports activities
    E. Organising Cultural Activities
  • Identifying local folk art forms, street plays, dance, music, bhajans, etc.
  • Identifying artists
  • Securing their cooperation for organising cultural programmes and training the beneficiaries
    F. Management of Information Centre
  • Identifying areas of information requiring dissemination
  • Receiving information regarding various developmental programmes
  • Disseminating the information to community
  • Collecting and displaying information of the centre’s village, such as, crops, population, education institutions, occupation, health facilities, other government departments. Updating information charts in the centre
  • Assisting in environmental building activities of different departments
    G. Organising Special Programmes for Women
  • Identifying activities for special programmes
  • Forming self-help groups
  • Running and sustaining these self-help groups
    H. Miscellaneous
  • Mobilising community resources for sustaining the CE programme
  • l Managing finances of the centre
  • Preparing and submitting reports to nodal CEC/ZSS
  • Networking with other agencies/NGOs/clubs in the area
I. Record Management
  • Maintaining records separately for each kind of activity
  • Weeding out records after prescribed time
2.2 Job responsibility of Assistant Prerak
    J. Running the Literacy Centre
  • Conducting survey to identify eligible neo-literates/non-literates in the area
  • Grouping identified learners according to their literacy skills
  • Preparing a time schedule for running the centre
  • Setting up the literacy centre, putting up the posters, making a congenial seating arrangements, arranging books and teaching/learning aids, proper lighting arrangements in the room
  • Conducting the literacy class as per time schedule
  • Maintaining a relevant records/registers for the centre such as attendance register, survey records, etc
  • Monitoring attendance of learners
  • Assessing Progress of learner’s achievements
  • Guiding/coaching learners for external evaluation
  • Note: Assistant Prerak will primarily be responsible for conducting literacy classes.

2.3 Job Responsibility of Nodal Preraks
(In addition to the responsibilities of Prerak in CEC)
    K. Supervision of CECs
  • Supervising:
  • Distribution of books and other materials supplied by ZSS to CECs
  • Management of library and reading room
  • Maintenance of accounts for corpus fund and membership fee (if any)
    L. Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Receiving and reviewing monitoring reports from CECs
  • Consolidating monitoring reports and sending to the ZSS
  • Evaluating community participation in the CE programme
    M Liaison and Coordination
  • Maintaining liaison/coordination between Preraks and the ZSS
  • Coordination with Mandal/Block Development Officer
Management and Funding
3.1 Role of State Resource Centres in Continuing Education
3.1 In the ninth five year plan, total and post literacy programmes have been integrated into one programme of literacy so as to form a continuum. The facility of basic and post literacy will also be available during the final phase of Continuing Education. Thus removal of residual illiteracy will remain a major concern in this phase as well. The NCECs and the CECs have to simultaneously provide for guided teaching- learning along with all the other inputs.

3.2 The basic functions of State Resource Centres since their inception have been:
Material development for adult learners

Training of adult education functionaries
l Research in the field of adult learning
3.3 The resource centres in the process have successfully performed their role of:
Providing learning resources for the delivery points i.e. the literacy centres
Strengthening infrastructural capabilities

3.4 The resource centres cater to three distinct categories of clientele:
i) Planners and managers of adult education
ii) Adult education functionaries
iii) Beneficiaries of literacy programmes

3.5 The clients of the fist two categories are the members of the State Literacy Mission Authorities, the Zilla Saksharta Samitis and Panchayati Raj functionaries.
3.6 Since this group is responsible for planning, management, supervision and monitoring of literacy programmes, the resource centres will undertake capacity building programmes for them.

3.7 The role of SRCs for the first two categories of clients would be: At State Level
  • To give orientation training to SLMA personnel enabling them to understand Continuing Education and perform their functions effectively; To suggest work plans to promote delivery systems and programme activities;
  • To participate in planning for production, procurement and dissemination of adult literacy material;
  • To train CE personnel, consultants and resource persons; and
  • To assist SLMA in monitoring and evaluating the impact of literacy programmes.
At District Level
  • To train ZSS functionaries in:
    • Project preparation;
    • Project execution; and
    • Monitoring and evaluation of literacy programmes;
  • To train functionaries of other departments;
  • To train resource persons for training of preraks, assistant preraks and teachers of literacy;
  • To prepare background material for training and reference; and
  • To train writers and institutions in development, production and assessment of neo-literate materials.

    3.8 The client group of the Resource Centres also includes non-literates, neo-literates and those who, having achieved sustainable levels of literacy, now wish to continue learning. For this group the major role of the SRC is to provide:
    • Preparation of a curriculum framework for neo-literate material; and
    • Preparation of print and non-print material for continuing education.
    3.9 In the area of material preparation, the SRCs have a very challenging role to play. While they would be the pioneers in orienting everyone concerned about criteria for judging materials for adult learners, they should also be able to compete with other producers when materials are selected for literacy programmes.

    4 Research in the Field of Adult Learning

    4.1 In this area, the role of the SRCs in the field of adult learning will be to carry out proactive research in the shape of case studies or in the form of operational research and even fundamental research.

      4.2 Possible areas of research could be:
    • Comparative acceptance and efficacy of neo-literate materials prepared by resource centres and other producers;
    • Operationalisation of an integrated approach to literacy;
    • Organisation of learning groups in continuing education;
    • Training needs of Preraks and the Assistant Preraks;
    • Efficacy of training given to resource persons and to the Preraks;
    • Peoples’ perception of and need for continuing education programmes;
    • Extent to which the CE objectives converge with popular expectations and requirements;
    • Additional inputs which can be provided to the entire gamut of adult learning to make it attuned with global objectives;
    • Comparability of NLM norms with MLL prescribed for formal education to facilitate the organising of equivalency programmes; and
    • Development of gender equity and equality, fight against discrimination and the concept of culture of peace through continuing education.
      4.3 The SRCs need to understand the clientele. They must find a place in the market for their expertise in resource support while they must take a macro view of the situation they must at the same time work out detailed plans for micro level activities. Systematic Planning is the key to their survival and success.

      5 Funding
      5.1 While the Central Government does provide financial assistance for initial establishment and running of CECs, in the longer run all such CECs are expected to become self-sustaining. Clearly, the effectiveness of a CEC and the scope of its activities will be significantly determined by the extent of community support enjoyed by it. The CECs must be perceived by the people as arising from their own initiatives to meet their explicit needs. To achieve this objective, the ZSS will be expected to devise all possible ways to enlist community support and mobilise financial and material resources from the community itself so that the CECs and their programmes become self-sufficient in due course of time.

      5.2 The historic decision taken by the Cabinet on November 30, 1999, has considerably liberalised the pattern of financial assistance to the CE districts and also effected significant upward revision in the parameters of financial assistance for the CECs and NCECs. An illustrative financial pattern of a CEC and NCEC is enclosed at Annexure I & II respectively.

      5.3 CECs and NCECs were hitherto being manned by a Prerak. With a view to strengthen the CECs/NCECs as also to ensure that residual illiteracy under normal literacy programmes is continued, it has been decided to make provision of an Assistant Prerak, both in CECs/NCECs. Specific task assigned to the Assistant Prerak would be to continue on-going literacy programmes with the assistance of volunteers as in regular Total Literacy Campaigns/Post Literacy Programmes. Under the revised parameters, the Prerak and Assistant Prerak for each CEC would be entitled to a honorarium of Rs. 700 and Rs. 500 respectively. The honorarium for Prerak and Assistant Prerak in the NCECs would be Rs. 1200 per month and Rs. 700 per month respectively.

      5.4 A statement indicating the existing and revised parameters of the financial assistance under the scheme is annexed as Annexure III. In view of the expanding role of the CE programme, the need for a credible data collection and monitoring systems needs special emphasis. For this purpose, the ZSS would be permitted to purchase a computer system from the contingencies/administrative expenses provided under the scheme, subject to a cost ceiling of Rs. 1.50 lakh.

      5.5 The State Literacy Mission Authority, which is the nodal agency at the State level for monitoring the implementation of the scheme will also be provided recurring financial assistance which will vary as per its grading. The annual assistance for SLMAs belonging to Grade ‘A’, ‘B’ & ‘C’ categories would be Rs. 12.50 lakh, Rs. 10 lakh and Rs. 7.50 lakh respectively. The SLMAs are categorised in accordance with their non- literate population. States with a non-literate population above 100 lakh are in category ‘A’, category ‘B’ comprises states that have an non-literate population between 15- 100 lakh and below 15 lakh are categorised as category ‘C’. SLMAs will also be entitled to a share of administrative cost admissible to the ZSS at the rate of 10 per cent of the annual recurring grant for CECs and nodal CECs. The apportioning of administrative expenses between the ZSS and the SLMA will be in the ratio of 8:2. Besides, SLMAs can also mobilise resources through voluntary contribution/grants and contribution by the ZSS for activities performed by it at the State level.

      5.6 Under the Scheme of Continuing Education, the Central Government provides 100 per cent financial assistance for implementation of the Scheme for the first three years of the project. For the 4th and 5th year of the project, the Central Government and State Government are required to share the expenditure in the ratio of 50:50. After the initial 5 years of the project, the concerned state government is to assume full responsibilty for functioning of the continuing education centres established under the scheme after central funding ceases

      . 5.7 Before the sanction of CE Education Project, the concerned state government is required to give an undertaking in the prescribed format which is annexed (Annexure VI). Wherever funds for CE in the district are released through the SLMA, it will be fully responsible for settling the accounts of the grants so released. In other cases, the concerned Zilla Saksharata Samiti will be responsible for settlement of accounts.

      6 Resource Support
      6.1 Given the diversity of the programmes that would be required to be enclosed in the framework of the Scheme of CE, it is imperative to take assistance from various institutions and organisations. Unless the resources and technical support of other related sectors – health, industry, agriculture, etc.– is tapped, it would be difficult to provide the required service only through the aegis of the education department.

      6.2 To achieve such convergence at the point of the CEC/NCEC, all development departments and institutions are required to be associated at the level of the ZSS. This gives these institutions an opportunity to actively participate in designing appropriate programmes that can be integrated into the overall framework of the CE Scheme.

      6.3 The technical and resource support which the CE Scheme would require:

    • Designing and development of curriculum framework
    • Development and preparation of teaching-learning material
    • Multimedia packages for short duration vocational training courses
    • Developing training modules and materials for functionaries at various levels
    • Production of books and journals for CEC/NCEC libraries
    • Research and evaluation
    • Information and material regarding development programmes
    • Providing other professional support for implementation of CE programmes

    6.4 Based on these broad requirements, the following agencies are expected to be closely associated with the CE programme for providing technical and resource support. (TABLE)

8 Monitoring
8.1 Monitoring of CE programmes in a scientific way is very important for quality and functional control. Suitable monitoring mechanisms would be evolved at all levels. The overall responsibility of monitoring the programme would lie with the ZSSs. Appropriate bodies must be created at the sub-district level in the form of Block Monitoring Committees and, if feasible, Panchayat Monitoring Committees.

8.2 The Prerak of the CEC must submits his/her monthly progress report to the Prerak of the Nodal CEC. The Nodal CECs should submit their collated monthly reports cluster to the block coordinator, who in turn must comply and send them to the district level committee i.e. the ZSS. The ZSS will be reviewed by the SLMAs and NLMA every month on the basis of a predetermined MIS format.

8.3 The incharge of the Nodal CEC is expected to visit the CECs in his/her cluster and hold meetings with all the volunteers at least once a month. The block coordinator must visit each Nodal CEC and hold meetings with the Prerak at least once a month. The ZSS functionaries through their core team at the district level must hold periodic meetings with the block coordinators and also regular field visits.

8.4 To ensure the participation of the community, the establishment of Village Education Committees (VECs), Committees of Neo-literates, User Committees, etc., are to be encouraged for day-to-day functioning of the programme. As earlier mentioned, the selection of the prerak, location of CECs and selection of programme content is to be done in active consultation with grassroots bodies.

Section 4
CE Programmes

Equivalency Programmes
Quality of Life Improvement Programmes
Individual Interest Promotion Programmes
Skill Development and Income Generation Programmes
Future Oriented Programmes

CE Programmes
  • Apart from establishment of Continuing Education Centres, a CE Project ordinarily comprises of programmes that can be basically classified as: Equivalency Programmes (EP),
  • Income Generating Programmes (IGPs),
  • Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIPs),
  • Individual Interest Promotion Programmes (IIPPs), and
  • Future Oriented Programmes (FOPs).
A CE Project is expected to comprise all continuing education programmes and activities proposed to be taken up in a single district. However, in the first year of the implementation of the programme, priority is given to the identification and setting up of CEC/NCECs, identification and training of Preraks, establishment of reading rooms and libraries, acquisition of audio-visual material and other infrastructure; and organisation of various extension and developmental activities. Major innovative programmes (IPs) are taken up when the requisite infrastructure and manpower is suitably available to sustain these programmes. 1 Equivalency Programmes

1.1 The Continuing Education Scheme of the National Literacy Mission envisages a number of different types of programmes which would give neo-literates an opportunity to attain different competencies and thus move towards self-sustenance and self-reliance.

1.2 The Equivalency Programme is one such programme. As the name indicates, the objective of the programme is to provide an alternate education programme that is equivalent to the existing formal system of education, be it related to general or vocational education. This programme is targeted towards those neo-literates who aspire to continue their education and acquire a degree/certification that would place them on an equal standing with others who have successfully completed their studies from in the formal system of education. Thus the underlying objective is to bring parity between different systems of education, thereby ensuring that every learner has equality of opportunity if he/she desires to continue studying.

1.3 At this point, the primary aim of the National Literacy Mission is to find a mechanism by which neo-literates from literacy campaigns can acquire basic education. Since most such learners cannot access the formal school system due to its rigidities of age, prior educational status, barriers of geography (distance), social restrictions on girls’ education, lack of infrastructure, etc., the open learning and non-formal systems are more suitable for such learning. Moreover, institutions that can support these equivalency programmes already exist.

1.4 One such programme that can be adopted as an equivalency programme is the Open Basic Education Programme that was initiated as a pilot project of National Literacy Mission and National Open School. Other programmes by which linkages with NFE Scheme and formal schools are established can also be visualised.

1.5 Target Group 1.51 The target groups of the programme are as follows:
1. Neo-literates who have successfully participated in the TLC and PLC;
2. School dropouts who have competencies of Class II level;
3. NFE programme completes and dropouts who have competencies of Class II level.
The age group of the target group would be from 15 years onwards.
Note: 1. Others who are confident that they have competencies of Class II level can be admitted after ascertaining this through an entry level test.
2. In case of children below 14 years of age, they should be encouraged to join formal schools or attend the NFE centres. Necessary information about these should be given at the CE centre.

1.6 Levels
1.61 The equivalency programme is visualised as a multi-level programme that would enable neo-literates to move upwards in a step-by-step manner. In this programme three levels are envisaged: Level 1 – this would be equivalent class 3/4 of the formal system
Level 2 – this would be equivalent to class 5/6 of the formal system
Level 3 – this would be equivalent to class 7/8 of the formal system

1.62 It may be mentioned that as regards further secondary and senior secondary courses, a number of courses of this level are already being run by national and state level institutions.

1.63 The National and State Open Schools run courses that are recognised for purposes of certification. Similarly Boards of Secondary Education enrol learners as private candidates. Hence information of admission to these courses could be given at the CE centre so that potential learners (including VTs) can make use of these existing systems.

1.64 It may also be mentioned that since the implementation of the equivalency programmes is in the initial stages only, it would be prudent for districts to concentrate on Level I before embarking on the other levels. The success achieved at this stage could determine further action.

1.7 Curriculum
1.71 The curriculum should reflect openness and flexibility. It should be developed keeping in mind local/regional specificities and should be based on graded competencies so that skills are developed. The curriculum should maintain standards necessary for equivalency so that, if desired, learners can move from formal to non-formal systems of education and vice versa. Provision for horizontal and vertical mobility should be inbuilt within the programme.

1.72 The curriculum should include both academic and vocational subjects. Based on the principles of open learning the ultimate objective should be to enable learners to select from a number of learning choices. In this initial phase it is suggested that at Level I, the curriculum would consist of 4 subjects of which one would be a language and there would be three other subjects. The subjects suggested are environmental studies, mathematics and a vocational subject.

1.73 At the Level 2, the curriculum would consist of 5 subjects of which one would be a language and there would be four other subjects. The subjects suggested are social science, science, mathematics and a vocational subject.

1.74 The concerned district could identify, a number of vocational subjects from which the learner could choose one under the Equivalency Programme.

1.75 A model curriculum may be developed at the national/state level and modified as per requirements of the districts. The curriculum should be a collaborative effort of national/state/district level educational institutions and field level functionaries so that it is of a high academic order, and is functional as well.

1.76 Since programmes under the Continuing Education Scheme are to encourage self directed learning, it is proposed that the curriculum should be transacted through self instructional materials. The learning materials should be developed keeping in mind the principles of adult learning and distance education so that learners get an opportunity to interact with each other. The materials should attempt to reduce the dependency for learning on the prerak. The layout and design should be appropriate for adult neo-literates. The principles of development of materials for neo-literates may be followed so that learners can comprehend the materials.

1.8 Conduct of Classes
1.81 The conduct of classes would take place at the study centre at the village. This study centre could be the CEC centre or any other suitable place identified by the VEC. The centre would be managed by the co-ordinator and classes taken by teachers/ tutors/co-ordinator himself (if competent). A suitable honorarium would be paid to these persons. The classes could be held according to a schedule that is as per the convenience of the learners. The classes are proposed to be held so that for Level I 300 hours of study time is utilised. For level 2 the proposed number of study hours is 400. The classes could be held everyday or in a camp mode for a fixed number of days.

1.9 Examination and Certification
1.91 An examination system consisting of internal and external examination will be conducted. As part of the internal examination learners would be required to fill up response sheets. The marks obtained in this would be added to the final result. An external examination would be conducted and a certificate provided on the basis of marks obtained. In order to provide a certificate which has standing and recognition, it would be necessary to identify a state level agency with whom a joint certification would be sought. The agency could be the state open school/state board/State Literacy Mission Authority/State Directorate of Adult Education.

1.10 Implementation Strategy
1.101 The implementation of the Equivalency Programme involves agencies at the village, district, state and national level. It is envisaged that each will play a substantial role in providing academic and administration support to the system.

1.102 The most important role in this programme is to be played by the co-ordinator of the study centre where the classes for the equivalency programme are to be conducted.

    This person could be the Prerak of the CE centre or could be specially appointed for managing the equivalency programme alone. The main responsibilities of the co- ordinator are as follows:
  • Environment building for the equivalency programme (Open Basic Education Programme).
  • Identification of potential learners.
  • Co-ordination with ZSS for selection of study centres.
  • l Registration of learners.
  • Procurement and distribution of learning materials.
  • Co-ordination in contact classes with hired instructors/teachers/tutors.
  • Conduct of internal examination with the help of hired teachers.
  • 103 At the village level, the Village Education Committee (VEC) would play an important role.
    It would be responsible for the following:
  • Constitution of advisory committee for smooth running of programme.
  • Selection of co-ordinator.
  • Selection of teachers.
1.11 Role of District Level Agencies (ZSS, DRUs / DIETs)
    1.111 The ZSS would be the main implementing agency. The DRUs/DIETs would support the programme academically. The main tasks of the ZSS would be as follows:
  • Identification of CE centre
  • Survey of potential learners
  • Environment building for Equivalency Programme
  • Organising training of prerak/teachers/block.
  • Identification of new courses (Vocational).
  • Academic support to OBEP and to state level bodies.
  • Preparation of student evaluation sheets.
  • Conduct of internal and external examination.
1.12 Role of State Level Agencies (SOS / SRC / SLMA)
    1.121 It is essential that one state level agency be nominated as the nodal agency for co- ordinating this programme. Once that is done, the agency would perform the following functions:
  • Formation of core group for smooth running of programme
  • Development of curriculum and materials with suitable agencies
  • Training of functionaries.
  • Certification (if given authority by state).
  • Monitoring and evaluation of the programme.
  • Co-ordination with national and district level bodies
  • Running of experimental centres.
1.13 Role of District Level Agencies (NLM / NOS)
    1.131 The main task of the NLM would be to ensure that one state level body is designated to co-ordinate the programme for that particular state. The NOS should provide academic support to the programme. Other responsibilities would include:
  • l Monitoring
  • Funding
  • Programme evaluation
  • l Research
  • Experimental programmes
  • Academic and resource support.
  • Co-ordination amongst different state level programmes.
1.14 Budget Estimates
A tentative illustrative budget representing unit cost of a study centre is as follows:
Unit cost of the Study Centre
For 25-30 learners Rs.33,000/-
Remuncration for teacherM
Training of instructors
Personnel contact programme.
TADA to resource persons
Video/audio material
Rs. 6,000/-
Rs. 9,500/-
Rs. 1,500/-
Rs. 10,000/-
Rs. 2,400/-
Rs. 1,100/-
Rs. 1,500/-
Rs. 1,000/-
Rs. 33,000/-
2. Quality of Life Improvement Programmes

2.1 Principles and Rationale
2.11 While almost all aspects of education contribute in one way or the other to improve the quality of life, some special types of educational activities may be more directed to improve the general well-being by improving the standard of living and degree of excellence of one’s lifestyle. Such activities come under the nomenclature of Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIPs). According to the UNESCO definition:

2.12 Quality of Life refers to the level of well being of the society and the degree of satisfaction of a number of human needs. Quality of life improvement programmes can be functionally defined as follows:

2.13 Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIPs) aim to equip learners and the community with that essential knowledge, attitudes, values and skills which enable them to improve the quality of life as individuals and as members of the community.

2.14 QLIPs are, therefore, development focused and have a strong future orientation. With the help of such programme, the community establishes a vision of future and devises and undertakes development activities to achieve that vision through education.

2.2 Quality of Life
2.21 The concept of quality of life has different meanings, interpretation and expectation for different individuals and communities. Reviewing various ideas and definitions together, in the Indian context, the concept, Quality of Life could be viewed as “A concept involving a relative assessment of human well-being in terms of the overall standards of living of society and the degree of excellence in an individual’s lifestyle”.

2.22 The concept of well-being is interpreted in terms of satisfying both economic and social needs.

2.3 Target Group
2.3 The target group comprises neo-literates, youth groups, interested individuals, farmers, small entrepreneurs, unskilled/semi-skilled workers, panchayat functionaries, etc. Women and other vulnerable groups would be especially targeted.

2.4 Indicators for Quality of Life Improvement Programmes
2.41 There are various elements on aspects of quality of life which may be expressed in the form of indicators. Many educators and social scientists have given lists of indicators in this regard. After reviewing these lists of quality of life indicators and the criteria for selection, UNESCO, PROAP has prepared a consolidated list of categories of indicators which could be addressed by QLIPS (Annexures IV & V).

It is as follows:
1. Biological : The satisfaction of basic biological needs is of fundamental importance both for survival and quality of life.

  • availability of food
  • cleanliness of air
  • availability of clean water
  • freedom from illness
  • quality of housing
  • a good sanitation
2. Social : The freedom to make choices and decisions and to participate in the affairs of society is an important dimension of democratic life.
  • quality of family life (example, parenting)
  • socialisation process
  • freedom of choice and decision-making
  • level of participation in social affairs
  • absence of discrimination
  • access to social services
  • access to cultural activities
  • degree of law
3. Economic : From the individual point of view, two factors are important – opportunity to work to earn adequate income, and to have enough money to purchase things of comfort. From the societal point of view, the whole society should benefit from an equitable distribution of economic opportunity.
    Elements :
  • opportunity to work and earn adequate income
  • a level of achieving self-actualisation through financial security
  • equity in distribution of wealth
  • adequate physical infrastructure
4. Humanistic: Psychological aspects like human feelings and emotions, happiness, harmony, spiritual fulfilment, peace of mind and general contentment are critical to attaining mental well-being and improved quality of life.
    Elements :
  • level of happiness
  • degree of inner harmony
  • level of spiritual fulfillment
  • degree of contentment and peace of mind
  • loyalty, ethics and tolerance
5. Environment : Natural as well as human environment are very important. The present generations should ensure that the quality of the natural environment and availability of natural resources are not degraded for future generations.
  • l natural environment
  • natural resources
  • l human environment
  • human population
Note : The list of elements in each category may be further expanded according to need/situation.
2.5 Organisation and Implementation
2.51 Prerequisites for Implementation
    l Identification and orientation of local resource persons, resource persons, training institutions.
  • Collection/procurement/preparation of resource material.
  • Constitution of various coordination committees at various levels.
  • Prioritisation of activities according to local needs.
  • Preparation of annual calendar keeping in view the resources, time and need.
  • Additional financial resources mobilisation, i.e. voluntary contribution, etc.
  • Insure participatory decision-making at various levels.
2.52 Problems of Implementation
    QLIPs face a number of constraints during the process. Among these the most important are as follows:
  • Psychological barriers e.g. vision gap, confidence gap, stereotyping
  • Absence of technical skills
  • l Absence of human relation skills
  • l Economic constraints
  • l Administrative constraints
  • Lack of political support
  • l Structural problems
2.53 Organisational Structure
1. Intersectoral Linkages - Development agencies, departments, NGOs, Panchayat.
2. The NLM and State Directorate and ZSS should make sure that all the relevant agencies and organisations of QLIPs at all levels participate fully and positively in ensuring a political will and a commitment to implement QLIPS, especially at the local/village level, not only in the administration and organisation of QLIPs but also in the provision of budget, personnel and technical knowledge needed at each level.
3 . The NLM and State Directorates as implementers of policies will promote QLIPS, train providers of QLIPs and facilitate activities in the promotion of QLIPs. ZSS will facilitate the process at district level.
4. At the village level, QLIPs should be implemented by the village education committee. This committee will be responsible for all CE program. The VEC should encourage educated persons and local wisdom to help the Quality of Life Improvement Programmes3 8 disadvantaged. Secondly, learning groups should be formed to study certain programmes of their interest, with the purpose of improving the quality of life of the villagers.
5. The Prerak of the nodal CEC with the help of other preraks, will ensure full participation by all local people, organise project groups and ensure that group leaders are trained.
6. Sectoral and non-sectoral agencies will provide services, resources, personnel, materials and equipment. The local self-government leader (sarpanch) will ensure their participation.
7. VEC will identify the priority areas in a participatory manner.
8. Many different individuals and agencies, including NGOs may be involved in monitoring and evaluation activities. VEC, local government, learners’ group representative, NGOs may do the monitoring and evaluation at the village level.
9. ZSS with the help of SRCs/DRU may develop materials, evaluation and survey strategy.
10. SRCs will train key resource persons.

2.6 Characteristics of Effective QLIPs

Since the role of QLIPs is to facilitate positive societal change through education, it is important that programmes developed for QLIPs must have the following components (i) clarity about present situation (ii) The procedure to bring about development (iii) a statement of the development target (clearly defined objectives). To achieve the objectives, QLIPs need to have certain qualities:
1. They must have a participatory approach.
2. Realistic and practical development targets should be set with carefully defined indicators of change. It is better to have quantitative indicators rather than qualitative.
3 . There should be clear understanding of procedures needed to bring about change from needs analysis, through implementation to the evaluation of outcomes.
4. QLIPs may be concerned with awareness raising, but unless they lead to action, they are largely ineffective. QLIPs, therefore, should enable people to take direct action in improving their living standards and lifestyle.
5 . Since the main beneficiary of QLIPs is the family, most effective programmes, therefore, should be based on the need of family and ensure that family welfare, interests and concerns are at the heart of the development.
6. There should be close coordination of all agencies involved like development departments, NGOs, mahila mandals, youth groups, etc.
7. To have a major impact, QLIPs even at village level, should not be planned on an ad-hoc basis. The QLIPs which are closely linked with overall plan of national development, are more likely to have impact on development of the nation as a whole. Also, they are more likely to get support from the national level.
Sometimes targets can not be achieved through education and training alone but education through QLIPs can facilitate and accelerate development.
2.7 Programme Framework
a. All programmes are focused towards a planned process of transformation from present state to a more desirable state.
Present Situation Desirable Situation
b. As has been mentioned earlier it may be broadly categorised into five dimensions namely Biological, Social, Economic, Environmental and Humanistic.
c. Goal and targets may be set at several levels: individual, family, community, state and national level. (Annexure II)
d. In bringing about a planned process of change, the following steps are generally taken:

e. An integrated approach to quality of life improvement is desirable. Sectoral development programmes will focus on providing services in their areas of specialization (e.g. health, agriculture) while education activities will emphasise the development of the learner’s (human) potential and capability.
ff. While designing a programme the following questions should be answered:
i. Why launch this programme (rationale)?
ii. Who are the beneficiaries (target group)?
iii. How to motivate participants (income-generating components and community benefits)?
iv. Duration of programme and timing?
v. Programme will be implemented by whom (responsible agencies)?
vi. Where (location of programme)?
vii. How (procedure)?
2.8 Budget Estimates
A tentative illustrative budget for the QLIP in a CE Centre for one year is a follows (25-30 persons):

Honorium to resource persons
Cost of material/equipment
Training of instructors
Transport expenses
Contingent Expenditure
Rs. 6,000/-
Rs. 9,000/-
Rs. 2,000/-
Rs. 8,000
Rs. 2,000/-
Rs. 3,000/-
TotalRs. 30,000/-
3. Individual Interest Promotion Programmes
3.1 The Concept
3.11 The objective of Individual Interest Promotion Programmes (IIPPs) in Continuing Education is to provide individuals the opportunity to participate in, and to learn (1) Social (2) Cultural (3) Spiritual (4) Health (5) Physical and (6) Artistic interests of their choice. In operational terms, activities under the IIPPs can be identified as those that are largely meant for spending leisure time, especially hobbies.

3.12 Some of the leisure time activities and hobbies require skill acquisition on the part of the participants. They include tailoring, knitting, dress making, preparation of food items, repair of household appliances, etc. Since they require skill acquisition, they may better be considered under the Income Generating Programmes.

3.13 Some other activities of the IIPPs, may overlap with those of Quality of Life Improvement Programmes. Hence the activities of the IIPPs should be strictly compartmentalised so that duplication is completely avoided.

3.2 Activities
The activities that can be organised under the IIPPs may be categorised into six broad groups, viz. 1. Social 2. Cultural 3. Spiritual 4. Health 5. Physical 6. Artistic.

3.21 Social Activity

    A number of activities can be conducted under this category. Some of the activities that can be offered under this category include
  • Celebration of festivals
  • Holding melas
  • Organising exhibitions
  • Having get-together programmes
  • Excursions

Excursions may be organised as a recreational as well as educational activity. It may include tours and picnics, and visits to a number of places such as natural sites, historical places, industrial urban locations, ideal villages, pilgrimage places, etc.

3.22 Cultural Activity
A number of activities can be conducted under this category. Participants may be attracted to them for their entertainment value or as leisure activities. Some of the activities that can be offered under this category include: Folk Art, Song, Music, Dance, Drama, Puppetry, Painting, Drawing and Handicrafts. Selection of the type of activities, whether they should be, for instance, local songs and dances or film songs of regional and national level, must be made as per the interest of the participants. Those interested can be taught handicrafts using locally available materials.

3.23 Spiritual
Activities meant to cater to the spiritual needs of the individuals, may be organised. They may include holding religious festivals, religious discourses, pilgrimages to religious places.

3.24 Health
Under this category, activities meant to improve the health situation of individuals may be conducted. They may include – medical check-ups, disease detection camps, health camps, yoga workshops.

3.25 Physical Activity
Under this category, activities of games and sports can be organised. They will have to be selected from the locally relevant areas as per the interests of the participants.

3.26 Art
Some activities of artistic interests can be organised, such as sculpture, designing and simple skills like rangoli and mehndi application. 3.3 Implementation

Identification of Activities
3.31 The first step in the implementation of the IIPPs is the identification of the activities that are of interest to the participants. It has to be the outcome of participation of Individual Interest Promotion Programmes4 3 the people, because the activities have to be of their interests. The Prerak can just facilitate the process. The exercise of selecting the activities with the participation of the people is a continuous process in the CE.

3.32 Group meetings of the interested participants may be organised for selecting the activities and for finalising the details of the individual programmes, such as the venue, time and contents. It may be useful to finalise the details of a programme in advance, so that it can be announced for the benefit of all those who are likely to participate in it.

3.4 Resource Persons
3.41 For conducting several activities of the IIPPs, different levels of guidance or help from resource persons will be necessary. For some of the recreational/entertainment/ cultural activities, resource persons may be available locally or from a neighbouring village. Some of them could be identified from the artists involved in the environment building programme undertaken during the literacy campaign. But for many of the activities the resource persons may have to be drawn from the block headquarters or even district headquarters. The Prerak may need guidance in his efforts to identify the resource persons. The ZSS probably can provide it.

3.5 Collaboration
3.51 In conducting the activities of the IIPPs, it may be useful to seek collaboration with agencies at various levels, panchayat, block and district. The collaborators may be individuals who are interested and competent, educational institutions like schools, NGOs, cooperatives, government departments, local industries, etc. Their services could be availed of for identifying and planning the activities, obtaining resource persons and financial support.

3.52 In conducting some of the activities of the IIPPs, especially those requiring outside resource persons, collaboration with other agencies may be necessary.

3.6 Financial Contribution
3.61 The possibility of collecting nominal fees from the participants of the activities, that require relatively higher expenditure, may be explored. This not only meets the Individual Interest Promotion Programmes4 4 expenditure partly, but also can enhance the interest of the participants in the activity. Other sources of additional finance for the activities are sponsorship funds from local institutions like cooperatives and commercial or industrial firms, panchayat and individual donors.

3.7 Products of Creative Activities
3.71 It would be quite encouraging and satisfying to the participants of the IIPPs activities if they are provided the opportunity to perform the artistic skills they have acquired or to exhibit the products of their creative activities. For this purpose, functions, exhibitions, sales-counters can be organised at the local school/panchayat premises. They can be conducted by the IIPPs under the category of recreational/ entertainment/cultural activities.

3.8 Budget
A tentative illustrative budget for conducting the activities of the IPPs in a ce Centre for one year is as follows (25-30kearbers):

  • Honorarium to resource persons
  • Cost of material/equipment
  • Transport charges
    (a)For rsource persons
    @ Rs. 50 per trip(50 X 50)
    (b) For outside wisits
    @ Rs. 25000 per visit for
    5 visits (2500 X 5)
  • Miscellaneious
Rs. 6,000
Rs. 9,000

Rs. 2,500

Rs. 12,500

Rs. 3,000
Total Rs. 33,000

4. Skill Development and Income-Generation Programmes
4.1 The activities involved in the Continuing Education Programme aim at providing ample opportunities to adult learners to use, utilise and apply their literacy skills in the arena of their daily lives. The establishment of NCECs and CECs enables the creation of an environment which is conducive to: l the regular use and consolidation of literacy skills in real-life situations; l enriching knowledge and acquiring skills which improve functional capability; l the application of such skills that contribute to raising the level of their quality of life.

4.2 As visualised by NLM, one of the vitally important target specific programmes of continuing education is that of Skill Development and Income-Generation. According to UNESCO reports: “An Income-Generation Programme helps participants acquire or upgrade vocational skills and enables them to conduct income generating activities.” This general definition was focused more sharply by an additional statement: “IGPs are those vocational Continuing Education programmes delivered in a variety of contexts which are directed in particular towards those people who are currently not self-sufficient in a modern world.”

4.3 Skill Development and Income-Generation programmes are functional in the sense that these are largely focused on the development of functional knowledge with a view to making learning relevant to living and working. Providing vocational skills means equipping people for their direct involvement in some economic or productive activity. Acquiring vocational skills is the ability of engaging oneself in an occupation or gainful employment.

4.4 Priority Target Group Every member of the community with special focus on neo-literates and those who have had little or no formal education.

4.5 Organisational Aspects
4.51 Identification of Programmes
4.511 A large number of programmes involving varying levels of vocational skills can be introduced in Continuing Education. The selection or identification of programmes depends upon the direct correlation between the learners and the world of work. Other considerations are that these should be relevant, useful and sustainable in the local situation. However, the choice of programmes should also include non-conventional ones which hold prospects for the future. These programmes may be categorised in three parts depending upon the requirement of funds for organising these programmes (see table 1). Illustrative budgets for these categories of programmes have been given later in this chapter

4.512 To begin with, programmes involving development of simple vocational skills may be identified, but there should be some scope for the upgradation of these skills or the skills already acquired by the learners. Curricula should be designed in modular form representing the levels of skill development i.e. from simple to difficult. Examples of skill development/income-generating programmes have been indicated in Table 2.

    4.513 Special features of the curriculum:
  • Must be competency based and modular in nature;
  • Should integrate managerial and entrepreneurial skills;
  • Should be a judicious mix of theory and practice and as per learning capacity of the learners;
  • Instructional hours to be allotted for each unit of the course content;
  • Learning outcomes to be identified behaviorally, both knowledge as well as skills aspects;
  • Syllabi should be supplemented by list of tools, equipments and materials;
  • Syllabi should be supplemented by teaching-learning materials that help in the retention of literacy skills/reinforcement of learning; and
  • Should envisage evaluation both in theory and practice.
  • 4.6 Technical Support
    4.61 Given a wide variety of skill development programmes delivered in multiple, non- formal modes and taking into account their matching with the job potential available in the market, it is imperative that a networking/collaboration/coordination mechanism be developed smoother implementation.

      4.62 The technical support required for IGPs includes the following:
    • Making available infrastructural facilities;
    • Supply of tools, equipment and raw materials;
    • Resource persons, trainers and their training;
    • Designing and development of curriculum;
    • Development and preparation of teaching-learning materials;
    • Providing suitable audio-visual/computer-aided techniques; and
    • Providing facilities for exhibitions, sales and marketing of the training products.

      4.63 Based on these broad requirements, the following agencies are expected to be closely associated in the organisation of skill development:
    • Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSSs)
    • State Resource Centres (SRCs)
    • District Industries Centres (DICs)
    • Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs)
    • Community Polytechnics
    • Khadi & Village Industries Commission (KVIC)
    • Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs)
    • National & State Open Schools (NOS/SOS)
    • Small Scale Industries
    • Private/commercial organisations
    • National Bank for Agriculture & Rural Development (NABARD)
    • Other development departments as per requirement
    • 4.7 Master Trainers and Training
      4.71 The services of locally available experienced master craftsmen/craftsmen may be utilised for the purpose.

      4.72 Jan Shikshan Sansthans and other support agencies may either provide trainers from the panel already available with them or plan and organise training programmes with the ZSS for drafting others as trainers/instructors for the identified programmes.

      4.73 Training Centres
      CECs and NCECs are the best venues for the conduct of income generation programmes as far as area specific and community based approach is concerned. However, if need be, the work centres of the other supporting agencies such as JSS, etc. may also be used for the purpose provided training is affordable or cost-effective.

      4.74 Methodology

        The following methodology for organising the programmes may be used:
      • Conduct of teaching-cum-demonstration sessions;
      • Use of print material;
      • Use of audio-visual material;
      • Use of computer-aided techniques;
      • l Field visits;
      • Placement/on the job training (if applicable); and
      • Follow-up

      4.8 Role of Jan Shikshan Sansthans
      4.81 Jan Shikshan Sansthans are visualised to act as district level resource support agencies especially in regard to planning and organisation of vocational training and skill development programmes for neo-literates and other target groups of CE Scheme. Skill Development and Income-Generation Programmes

        4.82 The following major roles are expected to be played by the JSS:
      • extend its programmes and activities to the entire district;
      • l support the ZSS in planning and implementing skill development and income- generation activities;
      • assess the learning requirements of beneficiaries of continuing education programmes;
      • do formulation and upgradation of skill development programmes and entrepreneurial activities;
      • develop curriculum of skill formation and upgradation programmes;
      • l establish and strengthen networking/collaboration with other agencies and organisations;
      • motivate and facilitate formation of cooperative/ thrift societies/self-help groups for undertaking collective economic activities.

      4.83 Steps in the planning and development of skill development and income generation Programmes:
      1. Selection of target groups through survey;
      2. Identifying groups in the lower and middle levels of development viz.:

      • farmers and labourers living below subsistence level;
      • rural women in need of supplementary income;
      • unemployed and underemployed youth in slum and semi-urban areas;
      • unemployed youth in urban areas;
      • employed persons seeking further education;
      • neo-literates
      3. Studying the changing market and employment trends in the district; 4. Identification of programmes for:
      • self employment;
      • wage earning; and
      • earning resources through investment to meet the manpower demands and needs of the target groups.
      5. Prioritising/selection of programmes to be implemented on the basis of:
      • available resources;
      • scope for utilisation of acquired skills and competence.
      6. Examination of available possibilities for the identified programmes in schemes of other departments.
      7. Identification of resource persons.
      8. Development of the curriculum:
      • l defining objectives and content in action terms;
      • incorporating life skills such as book keeping, accounting, marketing, problem solving, risk taking, communication skills, etc.
      9. Development of appropriate learning strategies:
      • arranging availability of physical material and human resources;
      • deciding expenditure to be incurred on hiring the services of resource persons;
      10. Identification of location (NCEC/CEC) and time table based on number of participants expected to join each programme and availability of infrastructure.
      11. Communication of the package to the identified NCEC/CEC;
      12. Informing the resource persons;
      13. Monitoring and evaluation through
      • reports from NCEC/CEC
      • l visits of block coordinators
      • feedback from learners
      14. Provision of follow-up technical and support service viz. information regarding rural enterprise projects, credit facilities and cooperatives for sharing costly inputs.

      4.9 Role of Preraks of NCECs and CECs
      4.91 Though agencies working at village, district, state and national level will play a substantial role in providing technical and other support required for the effective conduct of IGPs, but the most important role in this programme is to be played by the preraks of the NCECs and CECs. The Preraks will be responsible for implementing the programmes at the centre selected by the ZSS.

      4.92 They will perform the following functions:

        1. Disseminate information orally and through notice board regarding:
      • Content
      • Date (duration)
      • Place
      • Timings
      2. Enrol willing participants and form homogeneous groups. Each group may have 15 learners or so.
      3. Liaise with resource persons. 4. Facilitate conduct of the programme –
    • at the CE premises; or
    • at a vocational training centre of any other department; or
    • at any other suitable venue.
    • 5. Prepare and submit reports to the NCEC/ZSS regarding the programme.
      6. Maintain the equipment for the next programme.
      4.10 Training of Preraks
      Eight to ten months after the centre starts functioning, the Preraks should be given a refresher training of 3-4 days. This will include training on their roles and responsibilities with regard to skill development and income generation programmes. Skill Development and Income-Generation Programmes
      Skill Development and Income-Genrating Programmes
      Categorisaation of some proposed courses
Alumium FabricationMBrick makingMushroom farming
Plumbing Ornamental fish farmingBee keeping
Tailoring & EmbroidoryBeautician courceSweets production
VideographyPoultrySpoken Hindi
Mosaic Manufacturing Tissue culture Spoken English
Computer courseAgarbathi makingHome mursing
Ready made dress making Cycle repairingKitchen garden making
Cattle farming WatchrepairingRubber tapping training
Low cost building construction Radio repairing Jam, Jelly, Jice, Squash making
Goat farming Interior decorationPhoto framing
Pig farming Chappal making Hair dyeing
Cane furiture 6making Candle making yoga training
Jally window manufacturingBag manutacturingCarnatic Music
Wiring Commercial artist trainingLight music
CarpentaryDrama make - up volleyball training
Spray paintingDriving(2 wheeler)football training
Two & three wheller repairing Shuttle work training
TV repairing Spice making
Band troup training  
Driving(3&4 wheeler)   

Table II
Examples of Skill Development and
Income-generation Programmes

Sl. ProgrammeModuleInstructional
@ 2 hrs/day/session
1. Dress Making,Designing & Embroidery
  • Cutting &tailoring
  • Dress Designing& Garment making
  • embroidery

4 months

2. plumbing&
Sanitary work
  • Plumbing
  • sanitary work
2 1/2 months
1 1/2 months
3. Electrical
  • Electrical wiring
  • Repairing & maintenance of domestic electrical appliances
  • Motor & transformer rewinding
  • operation& Maintence Of pumps


5 months
1 month

5 months

1 month
4. Radio& television
  • Radio & rape recorder
  • TV mechanism
  • VCR,CD Player& Cble TV
4 months
5 months
3 months
5. Refrigeration& Air conditioning
  • Repairs & maintenance of refreigeration & air conditioning equipments
  • Repairs & maintence of commercial refigeration & air conditioning equipment
  • Repairs & mainantence of automobile air conditioning


6 months

3 months

1 1/2 months
6. Beauty Culture Health Care
  • Make-up
  • Hair Care & Setting
  • Body Perfection
  • Yoga & aerobic exercises
2 1/2 months
2 months
1 1/2 months
1/2 month
For all programmesplacement/on the job training in manufacturing /testing/assembling units/service centres/shops/repair shops/workshops/boutiques/beauty parlours,etc. As per requirements of the programmes and facilities available
4.11 Financial
4.111 The income generation programmes can be organised for groups of about fifteen learners.
4.112 The expenditure can be incurred on the following four major items:
    l Trainers l Tools & equipment l Teaching-learning and raw material l Contingencies
The cost per learner may be up to Rs. 2000/- per programme depending upon actual requirements.
Illustrative Budget for Income Generation Programme
IIIustrative Budget for Income Generation Programme
No. of trainees-20
Amount per head - Rs. 2,000/-
(Duration : 3 months)

Total Amount 200x20 nos.= Rs. 40,000/-
  1. Honoratium for Resource Person
  2. Cost of Equipment
  3. cost of Materials
  4. conveyance
  5. Exposure programme
  6. External Evaluation
  7. Project preparation/Trial Production
  8. Final Examination
  9. Miscellanceous Total
= 5,000/-
= 9,000/-
= 5,000/-
= 3,000/-
= 3,000/-
= 2,000/-
= 9,000/-
= 2,000/-
= 3,000/-
= 41,000/-

IIIustrative Budget for Category A Courses

Rs. 1800 per head x 20 = Rs. 40,000/-
  1. Honorarium for RP
  2. Cost of equipment
  3. Cost of materials
  4. TA for RPs, examinations & organisations
  5. visit to industries and production centres
  6. Project / Trial Production
  7. Examination
  8. Miscellaneous
= 5,000/-
= 9,000/-
= 5,000/-
= 3,000/-
= 3,000/-
= 7,000/-
= 2,000/-
= 2,000/-
Rs. 32,000/-

IIIustrative Budget for Category B Cources

Rs. 1600 per head x 20 = Rs. 35,000/-
  1. Honorarium for RP
  2. Cost of Equipment
  3. Cost of materials
  4. Ta for RPs, examinations & organisations
  5. Visit to industries and production centres
  6. Project/Trial Production
  7. Examination
  8. Miscellaneous
= 5,000/
= 7,000/-
= 4,000/-
= 3,000/-
= 2,000/-
= 7,000/-
= 2,000/-
= 2,000/-
Rs. 32,000/-
IIIustrative Budget for Category C Courses

Rs. 1400 per head x 20 = Rs. 30,000/-
  1. Honorarium for RP
  2. Cost of equipments
  3. Cost materials
  4. TA for RPs, examination & erganisations
  5. Visit to industries and workshops, farms etc.
  6. Project/model farming trial production
  7. Examination
  8. Miscellaneous
= 5,000/-
= 5,000/-
= 3,000/-
= 3,000/-
= 1,000/-
= 6,000/-
= 2,000/-
= 3,000/-
Rs. 28,000/-

5 Future Oriented Programmes
It would be advisable to design future-oriented programmes on the basis of the experience we will be gaining from conducting the various programmes being implemented at present. Hence, at the moment we may concentrate on effectively implementing the programmes we have already formulated and consolidate them. We may take up the future oriented programmes at a later stage, when we have adequate experience in the programmes we are engaged in currently.

Section 5
Educational Material

Focus of Activity
Key areas in Management of CE Materials
Characteristics of the Material
Screening of Materials
Supply and Distribution
Quality Control
Evaluation of Reading Materials
Educational Material

1. Focus of Activity
1.1 The aim of the Continuing Education Programme is to create an enabling environment which provides an opportunity for lifelong learning for all. Though the programme is targeted towards every member of the community, there would be a special focus on non-literates, neo-literates and those who have had little or no formal education. Continuing Education centres seek to achieve the aim.

1.2 The activities to be taken up in a centre library can be summarised as follows:
a) Reading sessions
b) Exchange of books
c) Discussion sessions
d) Mobile distribution through cycles, etc.
e) Information dissemination
f) Book exhibitions and displays

1.3 It is evident from the list of activities that the library in the CEC would be one of the most important components of the scheme. A vibrant, live and active library is the key to a successful CE centre.
1.4 Two factors would make the library successful in achieving its objectives:

  • User-friendly CE material
  • Effective management

1.5 In fact, CE material is the primary tool in making the library successful and in achieving the target of lifelong learning for all. If the beneficiaries and the managers both find the material appropriate, adequate and attractive, the efficiency of the management of the library will be facilitated.

1.6 The CE material thus integrates the objective of the CE programme with the needs of the beneficiaries.

2. Key areas in Management of CE Materials
2.1 In order to have the best possible material, the following issues need to be addressed on priority:
1 . Identifying the characteristics of the material;
2. Evolving a sustainable, practical methodology for creation and development;
3. Production, reproduction and costing;
4. Screening of existing and produced material;
5. Supply and delivery systems;
6. Utilisation, distribution, dissemination;
7. Quality control;
8. Monitoring; and
9. Evaluation.

3 Characteristics of the Material
(i) Should be available to beneficiaries at all levels of literacy.
(ii) Should be oriented to the genuine needs of learners.
(iii) Should integrate functional knowledge with literacy skills.
(iv) Should enable development of knowledge and skills systematically and logically.
(v) Content should include both recreational and functional areas with greater stress on the former. The functional areas should be relevant to the needs of the target group. Thus the content categories could be:
a) Recreational topics/fiction which would include novels, novellas, poems, short stories, comics, cartoons, joke books, etc.
b) Social and developmental issues
c) Civics and values
d) Culture
e) Work-related knowledge and skills
vi) The material should attend not only to reading skills but to writing, numeracy and general mental skills as well.
vii) The materials should be graded in a broad curriculum framework with adequate flexibility to enable learners to achieve the following objectives:

  • Retention of literacy skills
  • Application of literacy skills
  • Extension of literacy skills
  • Self-reliance
viii) There should be a broad spectrum of materials available for each level and every content area.
ix) The material should be prepared in variety of formats e.g. books, audio- cassettes, educational games, wall newspapers, pictorial charts, posters, etc.
x) All the material should be attractively produced so as to evoke and generate interest.
xi) Governmental/departmental hand-outs should be strictly avoided. Such material should be processed for readability, simplicity and attractiveness including maximum pictorial inputs before being kept in the CE centres.
xii) At least 30 per cent of all materials produced should be pictorial.
xiii) Font size for all materials should be not less than 14 points and line spacing should not be less than 1 under any circumstances.

4 Development
4.1 The materials for Continuing Education would be developed by:

  • State Resource Centres
  • National Book Trust
  • NGOs and
  • Individual writers
. 4.2 The following general steps would be followed in the development of materials:
1. Survey of specific needs of the target group;:
2. Selection of content (known, unknown, recreational, planner-based);:
3. Formatting (book, non-book, print, non-print);:
4. Selection of writers;:
5. Organisation of workshops for production of materials;:
6. Writing of scripts (scope and content, format, language, presentation);:
7. Illustration (traditional, standard, technical);:
8. Editing;:
9. Field test/feedback; and:
10. Revision/finalising the script for printing.:
4.3 State Resource Centres will provide training in material preparation to:
  • District Level Resource Units
  • NGOs
  • Writers
  • Private publishers
4.4 The training will include:
  • Need assessment
  • Subject selection, writing style, vocabulary limitation, pictorial compatibility
  • Production
  • Pricing
  • Dissemination
  • Testing
  • Evaluation

5 Publication
5.1 While those who develop the materials will also print i.e. SRCs, NBT, NGOs, private publishers will play an important role in publishing, considering the quantum and variety of materials required.

5.2 While every effort would be made to develop new materials, already existing materials with SRCs, NGOs and private publishers would be fully accessed and materials purchased based on suitability. Educational Material

6 Supply and Distribution
The Zilla Saksharata Samiti will take the responsibility of distributing materials to the Nodal CECs and CECs in each district. The flow will be as follows: ZSS Block NCEC CEC

7 Screening of Materials
7.1 As indicated above, besides material specifically developed for Continuing Education, materials already produced by various government, non-government and private agencies can be used and adapted for continuing education centres.

7.2 The selection of all materials for CECs will be screened at the state level by a specially constituted 8-member team. One of these members would be the representative of the Director General, National Literacy Mission. The team would be constituted by the Executive Committee of the SLMA and would have:
i) Director Adult Education or his representative – Chairman;
ii) Representative of a leading NGO;
iii) Two Secretaries of Zilla Saksharta Samitis;
iv) Three Preraks of Nodal CE Centres;
v) Representative of DG, NLM.

7.3 At the National level, the material unit of the Directorate of Adult Education will be responsible for identifying and adapting materials and recommending them to the SLMAs. They would also be responsible for holding seminars/workshops and for reviewing, testing, monitoring and evaluating. Their effort would supplement those of the State Resource Centres, State Literacy Mission Authority and Zilla Saksharata Samities.

7.4 The materials unit of the Directorate of Adult Education will prepare a ‘Planner’ indicating the content and level of material to be supplied to CECs.

8 Quality Control
8.1 The IPCL Committee had been approving and reviewing the primers for basic literacy. The material for continuing education (all kinds) should continue to be reviewed periodically at the national level. While the screening committees will evaluate the materials at the state level, a committee at the national level will evaluate the materials supplied to the CE centres for this purpose. The committee will select materials at random through the SLMAs for evaluation and review. The composition of the Committee will be decided by the Director General, National Literacy Mission

. 8.2 Review will be conducted to examine:
(i) Availability;
(ii) Functioning of delivery systems;
(iii) Suitability;
(iv) Production systems; and
(v) Reproduction and printing processes.

9 Evaluation of Reading Materials
9.1 The following aspects will be evaluated:
(i) The text:
1. Words: Simple. Within the span of vocabulary of the client group.
2. Sentences: To fit each level of competency.
3. Organisation: Paragraphs, headings and sub-headings.
4. Space: Density of reading matter. Space in the margin and between the words/ lines.
5. Type face: Size (larger than for general public and not less than 14 point font in any case (large).
(ii) Visual Elements:
1. Simple but attractive.
2. Relevant to subject matter.
3. Reflecting the local situation in terms of appearance, dress, houses, implements, etc.
4. Not too many details.
5. Few colours attractively used.

(iii) Arrangements of the content:
1. Pleasant style.
2. Friendly and participatory presentation – not like a sermon or a string of instructions.
3 Featuring some human interest e.g. a typical family facing problems.
4. Technically accurate information;
5. Relevance of content matter to the life of the client group – attempt to cater to some real needs;
6. Feasibility of suggestions in the book or booklet;
7. General avoidance of messages;
8. No preaching or patronising.

(iv) Reactions of learners:
To be obtained from CE centres, mobile libraries, reading centres and the community in general.

9.2 Certain criteria of evaluation would be applicable to all learning resources:
i) Suitability to the environment and socioeconomic background of the target group;
ii) Fitment within the broad framework of the curriculum;
iii) Availability of inputs for production or dissemination (e.g. for a video programme); and
iv) Extent of facilitation to foster emergence of self-confidence and promotion of a learning society.

5.9 Management of Library
5.91 To make the library efficient and user friendly, the target group may be motivated to utilise materials by:
1. Making the package of books attractive and useful with coding as per content and grading, thereby facilitating handling and understanding of materials;
2. Reaching the package to the target group;
3. Publicity;
4. Organising reading sessions;
5. Carrying books to people mobile libraries;
6. Organising book exhibitions at district and village level;
7. Displaying information regarding new receipts prominently;
8. Interacting with target group regarding their choices for new material; and
9. Evolving a system to monitor utilisation of materials.

Section 6


Annexure I
Non-Recurring (One time grant only for initial year)
S.No. Items of ExpenditureAmount (Rs.)
I. Equipments (alimirah, petromax, ground-table for putting newspapers, rollers, etc,) 10,000.00
II. Books 5,000.00
III. Maps. Charts, Picutres1,000.00
IV. Sports items and recreational materiasl, radio, T.V ect.7,500.00
V. Bicycle1,500.00

S.No. Items of Expenditure Amount(Rs.)
I. Honoraium of Prerak @ of Rs. 7000/-p.m.8,400.00
II. Honorarium of Asstt. Prerak @ Rs. 500/- p.m.6,000.00
III. Kersene & other lighting arrangement 1,000.00
IV. Purchase & newspapers and periodicals etc. 3,000.00
V. training o prerak and assistant prerak 1,500.00
VI. Maintenance, purchase and replacemen of literacy materials & equipments 3,600.00
VII. Office Expenses1,500.00

(i) Reappropriation between and among programmatic items are allowed as per felt need. However, reappropriation of the honorarium amount is not allowed for programmatic items and its vice-versa is also not allowed.
(ii) Best effort is to be made by the implementing agency, to look for public building or building provided by local people for housing the Continuing Education Centre. However, if such a place/building is not available despite the best efforts, then Continuing Education Centre may be housed in hired/rented building and in such case rent not exceeding to Rs.12,000/- annually will be admissible over and above the total amount of Rs.25,000/- as recurring grants. In this respect, a certificate will be required to be submitted by the Zilla Saksharta Samiti that no public building or building provided by local people could be arranged.

Annexure II
Non-Recurring (One time grant only for initial year)
S.No. Items of Expenditure Amount (Rs.)
i. Equipments (almirah, petromax, ground-table for putting newspapers, rollers, etc.15,000.00
ii. Books 10,000.00
iii Maps, Charts, Pictures and other teaching aids 2,000.00
iv Sports items and recreational materials, TV, etc. 15,000.00
v. Bicycles (two) 3,000.00
TOTAL 45,000.00

S.No. Items of Expenditure Amount (Rs.)
i Honorarium of Prerak @ of Rs.1,200/- p.m. 14,400.00
ii Honorarium of Assistant Prerak @ Rs.700/- p.m. 8,400.00
iii. Kerosene & other lighting arrangement 1,300.00
iv. Purchase of newspapers and periodicals 4,500.00
v. Purchase of books 5,000.00
vi. Training of prerak and Assistant Prerak 2,000.00
vii. Monitoring & supervision (including travel expenses) 2,400.00
viii. Maintenance/replacement of materials, equipment 2,500.00
ix. Organisation of training workshops/programmes, etc. 2,000.00
x. Office expenses 2,500.00

Annexure III
Existing and Revised parameters of the
Continuing Education Scheme

  • Financial pattern CECs
  • Rs. 10,000/- each for recurring and non-recurringRs. 25,000/- each for recurring and non-recurring non-recurring. In addition, Rs.12,000/-per annum per hired buildingfor housing CECs where no public building is available
  • Nodal CECs
  • Rs. 20,000/- each fo recurring an non-ecurring Rs. 45,000/- each for recurring and non-recurring . In addition, Rs. 24,000/-per annum per hired building for housing NCECs where no public building is available
  • Honorarium for Prerak
  • One Prerak each for CEC/NCECs(Rs.300 pm fo CECs and Rs. 700 pmfor NCECS)One Prerak and one Assistant Prerak each for CECINCECS(Rs. 700[, fpr [reral am Rs. 500 p.m. for Assistant Prerak an Rs. 700pm for Assistant Prerak for NCECs
  • Concept of composite project
  • Not existing Involvement of Zilla Saksharta Samitis and Ngos in running centres
  • Provisin of one computer, photocopier, fax machine & other office equipment
  • Not existing Rs/1.50 to be met from administrative expenses
  • Recurring grant to SLMAS
  • Not existingRecurring grant of Rs. 12.50 lakh, Rs. 10lakh and Rs. 7.50 lakh per annum for A,B&c grade SLMAS, repectively
  • Provision for resourrce support by National Open School in equivalency programme
  • Not existingRs. 1.10 crore pe annum to Nos
  • Sharing of experiences with other countries
  • Not existingRs 25 lakh per year

    Annexure IV
     Biological SocialEconomicHomanistic Environmental
    1. Biological Health Awarencess/PracticePositive attitudes towards societyIndusstry, ard work and honestyConsideration for others valuesCare for ature
    2. FamilyGood living habits Food / Nutrition Living togehtersharing & helping Cooperation & consideration values Environment around home
    3.CommunityHealth careHarmony, religious community Respect for other Helping the under privilegedPromoting Environmental concern
    4. Nation Medical Facilities EgalitarianismPolicies to help employmentImbibe values through educationEnvironmental polies

    Annexure V
    Dimension Aspects For people below poverty Line For people above Pverty Line
       A. Very Poor B. Poor C. Comfortable D. Affluents
    1. Biological a. Food
    b. Clothing
    c. Basic shelter
    a. Enough food
    b. adequate clothing
    c.Healthy shelter
    a. Food security
    b. suitable clothing
    c. Healthy shelter
    a. Balanced diet
    b. Wise selection of clothing
    c. Adequate and comfortable home
    a. Health/diet
    b. Wise selection an use of clothing
    c. Improving the home
    2. Social a. parenting
    b. Women and technical innovation
    c. Participation
    a. Child development
    b. simple technologies involving women
    c. Awareness of law and order
    a.Child development
    b. Women coping with new technology
    c. Understanding basis for law and order
    a. Adolescent adjustments
    b. Learning about new technologies
    c. Safeguarding law and order
    a. Tactful family leadership
    b. Making the most of new technologies
    c. Personal roles in law an order
    3. Economic a. Work
    c.Service facilities
    a. Job hunting
    b.increasing income
    c. basic hysical
    a. Job security
    b. Further increasing income
    c. Better physical facilities
    a. Improving working conditions
    b. Receiving satisfying income
    c. Priority planning facilities
    a. Creative work
    b. Sensible use of income
    c. Sensitive use of facilities
    4. Humanistic a. Moral values
    b. Attitudes to development
    c. Contentment of mind
    a. Honesty
    b. Urge to change
    c. Basic satisfaction with life
    a. Honesty
    b. Development perspective
    c. Satisfaction with file
    a. To be concerned about others
    b. To be concerned with helping in development
    c. To be healthy, happy and comfortable in life
    a. To have high social awareness
    b. to contribute to development
    c. To share happiness with others
    5. Envirnment a. Polution
    b. Resource protection
    c. Population
    a. Awareness of dangers
    b. Awareness of needs
    Family planning welfare
    a. Problems and affects
    b. Meeting needs
    c. Advantages of small family
    a. Awareness and civic duties
    b. Rational use of resources
    c. Healthy children and proper education
    . Contributions to solving the problem of pollution
    b. Planning for wise use of resources
    c. Social consequences of over population

    Annexuree V

    Dimension Proposed Programme Objective Level Target Group Content Duration Strategy for Motivation Roles of Various Bodies
    1. Biological
    *Access to health ervices
    *Improved health of the villagers
    *To create a demand for health services
    *To provide facilities for reuglar medical check-up eye check-up , dental Check-up, dental check-up T.B. leprosy check-up.
    *Pre&Post-natal care, immunisation of children, Rehydration therapy.
    *To creat awareness regarding community & personal health & hygiene.
    *AIDS awareness
    *For People below poverty line, special focus will be on young couples
    *Neo-literates having limited literacy skills

    *Advantages of immunisation, rehydration therapy.
    *Advantages of clean environment
  • Detailed information about AIDS. T.B. & Leprosy
    *Simple knowledge about eye & dental care
    *Prevention & cureof water borne diseases
  • Throughout the year.
    *Every month one program will be organised
    *Eye check up camp Dental & health check-up camp.
    *T.B. Leprosy & AIDS detection camp.
    *Immunisation camp
    *General health awareness camp
    * RH awareness camp
    Health mela

    *Nodal CEC planning & coordination with various Agencies
    *ZSS-help NCEC in above activity, production of material monitoring of activities and support when even required linkages with Dev. agencies.
    *SRC/DRU. production of material, training of functin of various Dev. Depts.
    *Health Agencies Provide infrastructure & service through professionally trained persons.
    *Primary health centre, family

    Dimension Proposed Programme Objective Level Target Group Dontent Duration Strategy for motivation Roles of Various Bodies
    2.Economic *Improve the income of rural people
    *To improve the income of farmers by providing them skills and information about modern. agricultural technology
    *Providing facilitties for loans, funds and materials etc.
    *Agricultural community in Poverty stricken area
    *Neo-literates with limited literacy skills

    *New concepts and ways of farming
    *New skills - as per need of area
  • Technical and financial assistance
    *Provision of loan
  • Throughout the year
    *Agriculture melas
    *Training of personne (Long+short term courses)
    *Working camp
    *Group discussions, home visits and discussions.

    *CEC-organise short training programmes
    *NCEC-Contacting local Agricultural bodies and banks, etc. & corrdinating th activities or various agencies
    *Agriculture Deptts.-provide technicians Professional Staffs seed, Esperimental site, etc.
    *Science Deptts- Technology, cunsultancy, testing of soil
    *Bank/govt.bodies-loans, functions fertilisers pesticides
    *NGOs-Publicity, mobilisation
    Annexure VI

    The State Government of ......................................................... concurs with the pattern of central and state funding envisaged under the “Scheme of Continuing Education” and undertakes to assume full responsibilities for continuance of the Continuing Education Centres established under the Scheme after the central funding ceases. The State Government also undertakes to take necessary steps to include the funding requirement provisions in its Five Year Plans for continuation of the Scheme, after the expiry of the initial period of 5 years and to bear the assistance upto the extent of 50% in the last two years i.e. the fourth and fifth years of the implementation of the Continuing Education Project.
                                                                                                                                             Secretary of Education
    Place :
    Date :

    Annexure VI

    1. CE Continuing Education
    2. CEC Continuing Education Centre
    3. NCEC Nodal Continuing Education Centre
    4. NOS National Open School
    5. PL Post Literacy
    6. NLMA National Literacy Mission Authority
    7. SLMA State Literacy Mission Authority
    (State/Province Level)
    8. ZSS Zilla Saksharta Samiti
    (District Literacy Committee, an automomous registered society)
    9. TLC Total Literacy Campaigns
    (For basic functional literacy)
    10. PLC Post Literacy Campaigns (After TLC)
    11. JSN Jan Sikshan Nilayam
    (Post Literacy and CE Centres run earlier)
    12. SRC State Resource Centres
    (In every state for material and training support)
    13. SVP Shramik Vidyapeeth
    (For technical and vocational training
    support to literary programme)
    14. ITI Institute of Technology